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Which of the following staiernentscular forces?London dispersion fotces tend (crcaWucuelHonuuniaeculeThe sttongest intermolccular #ttractions exIst bctwen between s...

Question

Which of the following staiernentscular forces?London dispersion fotces tend (crcaWucuelHonuuniaeculeThe sttongest intermolccular #ttractions exIst bctwen between solid melecules fo / gwen substin&) .hincilona carbTe convcrsiun Oiliquid rcquire: cnetgy duxzctur( 64 polar Inolecule cupuhlc . ol dipok-Jimlc luxceThe vui*r pressulc Df "IvC bubat Int dectcusor 4Icnancrlult Wlenenad

Which of the following staiernents cular forces? London dispersion fotces tend (crca Wucuel Honuuniaecule The sttongest intermolccular #ttractions exIst bctwen between solid melecules fo / gwen substin&) . hincilona carb Te convcrsiun Oi liquid rcquire: cnetgy dux zctur ( 64 polar Inolecule cupuhlc . ol dipok-Jimlc luxce The vui*r pressulc Df "IvC bubat Int dectcusor 4 Icnancrlult Wlenenad



Answers

Which of the following statements about intermolecular forces is(are) true?
a. London dispersion forces are the only type of intermolecular force that nonpolar molecules exhibit.
b. Molecules that have only London dispersion forces will always be gases at room temperature $\left(25^{\circ} \mathrm{C}\right)$
c. The hydrogen-bonding forces in $\mathrm{NH}_{3}$ are stronger than those in $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$ .
d. The molecules in $\mathrm{SO}_{2}(g)$ exhibit dipole-dipole intermolecular interactions.
e. $\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{CH}_{2} \mathrm{CH}_{3}$ has stronger London dispersion forces than
does $\mathrm{CH}_{4}$ .

So let's have a look at the forces present in a range of molecular compounds. To be able to determine the inter molecular forces we need to look ass. The structure of the molecule into molecular forces are going to be dependent upon the structure and the polarity. So if it's non pola, the forces acting between the molecules are going to be London Dispersion Forces, which will a brave EI Tia as o. D. If if the molecules pola, it'll either have die Poldark Poll forces, which will cool d d efs. It will have hydrogen bonds, which will call HB. I have a hard region bond within the molecule you have to have ah, hydrogen bonded toe. Other a flurry. A nachagyn Well, an oxygen. What that does is create an extra strong dye poll in the molecule side that the dispersion forces are stronger than normal and we call them hydrogen bonds. So to determine polarity, we need to draw the structure. That's our first. So let's look at some compounds the first time regard to look at is it for structure? Visit for ISAS follows. I'm not going to draw in the non bonding piers on floor in just sort of seemed prefer the molecule a little bit. However, this molecule is quite hola. It has a dark hole. It runs from the sulphur where you have the central positive on the Florence where you have the center of negative. So your dark hole is running in that direction. So since it is Paula and there is no hydrogen bonded toe, a flurry nitrogen oxygen, the forces present are going to be dark. Hold our forces. The next molecule, we're going to look at his carbon dioxide. This is the structure off carbon dark outside the central, positive and center of negative in carbon dioxide in the same price. Therefore, this makes this molecule non polar. There is no die poll, so the forces present will be London dispersion forces. The next molecule is ethanol ch three, ch two. How much? He's a structure with the no. If the novels of very polar molecule it has a center of negative somewhere around the oxygen and a central positive some way over the other side of the molecule. So it has a dark Paul running the carbon aimed through to the oxygen end. So this is polar However, since oxygen is bonded to ah hard region here, we're going to have extra strong diaper die Paul bonds between neighbouring ethanol molecules and therefore it's going tohave hydrogen bonding between molecules. The next molecule to consider it's hard to turn Flora Chief, This is the structure of hydrogen fluoride again central negative, their central positive here. So the diaper runs from the hard region to the Florida and this makes this molecule highly polar. And since the flooring is bonded to ah ha hydrogen that dark polls extra strong and therefore we have hydrogen bonding present, I make Okay, The next one is our Dane Tetra Florida. This is the structure of our Dane Tiptoe fluoride. There's a diaper running from the Rdn positive end of the rdn through to the Florence somewhere there. So we have a dark hole in that direction. This molecule is Pola. Therefore it will have Di Paolo di poll forces. The last molecule is in on floor Tetra, Florida. This is the structures in on Tetra Flora where we place the Florence is very important to you because it will affect the symmetry of the molecule. Given that there's four fluoride Zehren a square plane around the scene on, we're going to have the center of positive and central negative in the same place, so there will be no die. Poll on this molecule will be non polar hence will have London dispersion forces and it's simply due to its geometry.

So here we have to figure out which in a molecular forces are present. So first, let's just draw the Louis structure, which I always recommend when you're doing these type of problems because it makes it much easier. So here we have this sulphur with four floor flooring Adams, and it has to, uh, a lone pair of electrons up here. So therefore, we have a disciple die poll, and we also have, um, are electrons around the Florence. But I'm not going to draw those for sake of simplicity. Dappled, I pull and there's London then as well. But diable die pool is the major as it productive is it dominates. Um, the CO two as it should be familiar by now. This is what the 02 looks like. It's a linear, linear molecular geometry and it does not have a die poll. It does not have hydrogen bonding. It is Onley. London dispersion forces. So for this ch ch 20 h, or ethanol as it is more commonly called, we have our see him a correct ages. But we ever saw another sea with Tash too, And oh, monotone h with lone pairs here this is of course gonna have London dispersion forces. This is also gonna have die Poll As we have blown Aziz, lone pairs are going to create and I pulled. I pull moment and we also have hydrogen bonding because the O is taking most the charge from this age and that age is naked. Is a naked proton essentially and wants to bond to the other. Wants to cut 100 bomb of the other owes of other molecules in the solution So also hydrogen bonding And that is actually what is going to be the most. Have your bonding down mates of all these Internet their forces H f h is despondent F and F has its electrons and therefore has London, of course, since it's not an ionic compound and it also has hydrogen bonding because we see is the same thing as in life. Stage 20 we pull most of the charge from this it's to the f NF has Muller more than negative has a slightly negative charge and they said the slightly positive charge. But you don't have to get out of that um, the I c l five you might be saying, Well, Doesn't this violate the architectural? Because it has more. And, uh, more than eight pairs be more than electrons being shared. And yeah, it does. But this is because I'd I'm is a rather large molecule, is it? It's in the fifth row of the periodic table so it can hold all these extra electrons cause that's 2468 10 12 Right here. And this gives us a This, of course, then has London dispersion forces and it also has die pulled. I pull because it's not symmetrical. And it has these loan as long pair of hair. I pull a die pool. The last one we have the zine on Flora flooring fluoride. We have f here with f here since I already know what this looks like, We're going to move this off here and we actually have two more lone pairs now. So this then has a square plainer shape with a doctor he'd roll, um, electron geometry and a square Plainer molecular geometry as thes as the electrons will take up the axial positions on the top of the bottom. And these will stay in the plane efs And therefore this has London dispersion forces again and has die pulled. I pull, I pull, die, pull

London dispersion forces are into reelect Euler attractions that result from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of immediate die polls. So, for example, if we have Adams of, say, helium, it might have have electrons going around it constantly. And so sometimes elect drunks could be over here, which I'm just gonna represent as read minus signs for sometimes they could be over here or over here, but eventually they will be come on one side, making the other side have a more positive charge which creates those immediate die poll interactions, and it causes other molecules around it to also formed. I pose, as the electrons will be more attracted to the positive side of the other molecule and vice versa. And so most things have London dispersion forces. A common example might be water or something. But it is important to realize that these are usually the weakest attractions in their typically temporary. So they don't last very long as the Lord Jones air constantly moving

To figure out the inter molecular forces. We want to know if the substance is polar and non polar. So let's draw the lewis structure. So if you have germanium and then four bro means this is going to be a tetra hydro species, which means that it's symmetrical and it's going to be a non polar molecule. And when it's non polar it has dispersion forces. And that's the only inter molecular force present, Proceed to H. two. It's a linear molecule with a triple bond. The difference between hydrogen carbons electro negativity isn't even that strong to make the bond polar. Um But if it was then the overall molecules symmetrical, so non polar, so the only forces present our dispersion, there's no disciples for H. F. It's linear. Uh But there is going to be a die poll because flooring is more electro negative than hydrogen. It pulls the electrons this way. So that means it has dispersion forces, just like everything else. So way. But it also has dipole dipole interactions. and the question doesn't ask about it. But hydrogen fluoride can participate in hydrogen bonding as well. Lastly, Tcl too, is going to be polar because it's a bent molecule. Um so you have di polls that don't cancel out, and if it's polar, then it has the dispersion forces that all molecules have, as well as dipole dipole interactions.


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