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Categorize male coloration from one offive categories:red/orangeyellowblue/greenwhiteblackin each of the following 5 areas or“landmarks”:first dorsal fi...

Question

Categorize male coloration from one offive categories:red/orangeyellowblue/greenwhiteblackin each of the following 5 areas or“landmarks”:first dorsal finanal finnoseopercular flap (gill cover)flank directly above anal fin (side) Score 0 if the colors are thesame between the two fishes; score 1 if the colors aredifferent.Male AMale BMale CMale DMale A00000011101111100000Male B01110000001111101110MaleC11111111110000011111MaleD00000011101111100000Step 2: Quantifydifferences in color.Fill in the

Categorize male coloration from one of five categories: red/orange yellow blue/green white black in each of the following 5 areas or “landmarks”: first dorsal fin anal fin nose opercular flap (gill cover) flank directly above anal fin (side) Score 0 if the colors are the same between the two fishes; score 1 if the colors are different. Male A Male B Male C Male D Male A 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Male B 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 Male C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 Male D 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Step 2: Quantify differences in color. Fill in the table below comparing color differences among all the males. To calculate a color difference index, sum the scores for each pairwise comparison (e.g., the 5 scores for Male A and Male B) in the table above and then divide by the number of landmarks (5). Male A Male B Male C Male D Male A 0 0.6 1 0 Male B 0.6 0 1 0.6 Male C 1 1 0 1 Male D 0 0.6 1 0 Fill in the table with the genetic distance (# nucleotide differences/total # nucleotides) between each population. Population A Population B Population C Population D Population A 100% 21% 12% 5% Population B 21% 100% - 10% 16% Population C 12% 10% 100% 7% Population D 5% 16% 7% 100% Questions: 1)How many species are defined using genetic distance? Justify your answer and propose a reasonable explanation for the data 2)Compare and contrast the species you defined using morphological interbreeding predictions vs. genetic distance cutoffs. 3)Which species concept should be used for darters? Explain your answer.



Answers

It is often difficult to disentangle the roles of environmental factors and mating preferences in creating and maintaining species boundaries. This is why the cichlid example in Section 16.3 is so unique, and also why it can be difficult to understand. Study Figure 16.17 and answer the following questions by comparing the two most extreme island habitats of Marumbi (left column) and Makobe (right column): a. How do the two environments differ? b. What color are the male fish in these two habitats. and at what depth are the different colors of male fish found? c. What $L W S$ opsin alleles are present in the two populations, and what does it mean for a female to have a "blue" or a "red" LWS opsin allele? Finally, ask yourself why the environmental context is so important for these cichlids. What colors of male fish would be present in Lake Victoria if all habitats were similar to Marumbi (low water clarity)?

Um So again, this question gives us, ah, the, uh, Gino types and their fina types and then gives us, um, what happened with the different crosses? Um, so for the first question, we're supposed to give a gina types of the bat cross progeny. This means, uh, he bad He crossed to fish and then crossed the offspring of those fish to get more offspring. So we're gonna be looking at those those second generation. So each of the bat cross progeny received recess of videos, um, bay and are so they're FINA type is therefore determined by the O Leal's receive from the other parent. So brown fish are equal to that. Um, bluefish are equal to redfish and whites is are equal to this so that for the second part of the question, we're supposed to run a chi squared and work high squared. You're going to want Teoh, um, use the equation observed, minus, expected squared all over expected, and the end that you're going to total up. I'm all the amounts that you get for each color, and your chi squared will equal what size. And so the P is between 0.9 and 0.975 So you cannot reject the whole no hypothesis. So this is not a very good p value. And so then we want to know what results would you expect for a cross between a homo zegas redfish and a white fish? So the Hamas, I guess redfish would be. And you're going to cross it with, um this And so then this with equal that all the progeny would be, which is red. And so now we want to know if you cross a home is I guess redfish with a homeless Vegas Balu fish answer than all the F one would be That and then you're going Teoh back. Cross this with the homes, I guess. Right, Parent. And so they would be overall, um, half brown and half red.

Okay, so we have a lake where two species of fish had undergone some Patrick speciation, and so each species of fish. The males were different colors, and females with then select which one they like best. So sexual selection. And then over time, the lake bait became cloudy. So now it's hard to distinguish between red and blue fish. And so on the left we ever males and then on the right, we have our females. So they were blue and red to the females. But then because it became quality, they became harder to distinguish color. So now they just looked black. What will happen is that there's going to be interbreeding between the two. So this blue female doesn't know that this is actually read mail, So she's gonna breed with him. And this blue red female is gonna breed with this bloom Male not realizing that they're a different species. And so there's a good chance that there's gonna be hybridization in the population. And then we've been over time, they might, um, converged back in the one species or even become a different species. Besides the original too

Hello, everyone. I hope all is well in today. I'll be helping you with the 42nd problem of the Chapter 19 problems that so a is asking. Calculate the frequencies of F for each khalil and complete the table below. So I'll just write out the table right here. So you have a you have B, you see. And so how you want to calculate this is if it's double a right, and it says, for example, in this one, it says 82 for one and 96 for two. What you want to do is you want to multiply this by two and multiply this by two right, and you want to add up all the other ones. So for a I got a total of 384 B for the one is 360 for see is 260 you'll get that total because there are two Aly LS for each, eh? A. B A, C B B B C in C. C. So that's gonna come out. There's a total of 500 different types, but there's a total of 1000 of Leal's, and so for these ones, you do the same mouth, but just for the two column and this is what I got now. Well, go on to beef. So be says, um, isas using like I squared of. I weighed these data to determine if the em anno Peppe today's gene in the thes two populations is evolving. So I could go through all the math and everything, but I'm not trying to and take a whole bunch of your time. But if you compare two degrees of freedom, what you'll find out is yes, it is in the second population, so it is occurring in the second population. There is a a mutation because the second population does not have access or as much access toothy fish or the protein that they're eating. And that's what it works on. So then you have See, that says, based on these, um ah, this data predict with justification changes over time in the M know Pip today's enzyme. For these, um, for these populations, basically, what will happen is for for the first population it'll stabilize. So it'll be pretty much a similar to what it already is. And then for two, it will go down because they don't have as much meat to eat. And then you have de that says, um, predict what other factors? Because could result in departures from Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. And if you know anything about the cardio Weinberg equilibrium, um, away, that's ease my bad. This is D. Hold up. Let's go back to D. O. D. Says describe an investigation of these two habitats that could suggest a casual relationships between changes in a little freedom, frequency and characteristics of the environment. So what I said is that you get to, um, you get investigate the amount of digestion a protein from both the habitats. So you'd get to animals from each. So a total of four. And then what you do or are bigger sample size. And what you would do is you would try to see you two have to and to and from these you'd feed him protein and you see how they digest it. And you'd try to, um, trace how they do it. So then e okay and the E is the predict. So predict what other factors could result in departures from Hardy Weinberg equilibrium so hard. Why were equilibrium needs infinite amount of, um, you need a huge population, basically infinitely big. Um, and basically, one of the things is you cannot have gene flow. So if gene flow occurred because, um, that they are now separated and so other species could enter in and gene flow could occur that could be that could mess it all up. So I hope you found this helpful. And I hope you have a great day. Thank you.

Here for the solution. Speciation is Linus plating, or evolutionary event, that evolves the formation off biological species by the process off division off species into two or more genetically unique or distinct species. This is also called Anna Genesis. There are species which split into different groups that do not share the same genetic structure or gene pool, and is called Claire de Geniuses. However, in both these cases, reproductive isolation takes place. Speciation can be off three types. Sim Patrick Speciation Ah, look, Patrick speciation or Para Patrick speciation. Mhm Sim Patrick Speciation is the isolation off species reproductively in a population off species. It commonly takes place through Holy Employees. That is offsprings with two E's, with twice the number of chromosomes. Now Allah Patrick Association as the occurrence off appreciation where species are geographically isolated, leading to the season off gene flow. Yeah, para Patrica speciation is the speciation where the spaces interbreed rather than geographically isolation, leading to the development off new characteristics. When two faces that have recently undergone Sim Patrick speciation, they will find it difficult to distinguish their reproductive partners. This is due toa cloud cloudiness or population in the water. Yeah, hands. They might rip result toe reproduction by the process off hybridization or may undergo self fertilization. They may also refused back into the especies That highly depends on the viability off the offspring. After the hybridization. Sim Patrick Especies is rare and occurs through polyp employees. Debt form, double the number off chromosomes and reproductive isolation in the basis off its occurrence. So this is a complete explanation for the solution. Please go through this. Thank you.


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