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Predict the most likely mode of decay of each of the followingradioactive isotopes:americium 241, iridium 164, calcium 50, nitrogen 13, iodine137A alpha decayB beta...

Question

Predict the most likely mode of decay of each of the followingradioactive isotopes:americium 241, iridium 164, calcium 50, nitrogen 13, iodine137A alpha decayB beta decayC positron emissionD electron capture

Predict the most likely mode of decay of each of the following radioactive isotopes: americium 241, iridium 164, calcium 50, nitrogen 13, iodine 137 A alpha decay B beta decay C positron emission D electron capture



Answers

Predict the probable mode of decay for each of the following radioactive isotopes, and write an equation to show the products of decay. (a) Manganese-54 (c) Silver-110 (b) Americium- 241 (d) Mercury-197m

In order to determine that decay mode of a particular radioactive isotope, we typically look at the band of stability. And if you have a chart showing the band of stability, you'll notice that, um, it indicates certain regions on the chart. The first region, um, is this upper region right here in which the atomic number, the number of protons is greater than 83. Those radioactive isotopes tend to decay by alfa decay. They're very heavy. Um, the second region is when you have, ah, high neutron to proton ratio, where you're above the dotted band of stability. Um and then you tend to decay by beta decay. The radioactive eyes took tends to decay by beta decay. And finally, in the third region, when you're below the band of stability, then the radioactive I stoke tends to decay by positron emission or by electron capture. So we have four radioactive isotopes that we want to take a look at Andi. The first ice tube is Mangga Knees 54. Now, in order to determine the Dechaine mode, we have to know the number of protons or the atomic number of the radioactive isotope. So Mangga knees 54 has an atomic number of 25 and um, with its atomic number of 25 it has a relatively low neutron to proton ratio. It's ah neutron to proton. Ratio is below slightly below that belt of stability. So um, magnesite 54 is going to decay by either electron capture or positron emission, said some most likely motive decay. The next radio as a radioactive isotope that we want to take a look at is a Marie C. M. 2 41. I am to 41. And when we look up the atomic number for Emory Sim, it is 95 and that is well above atomic number 83. So that's a very heavy nuclei, and that is most likely going to decay by Alfa Decay. Our next radioactive isotope, ISS silver 1 10 and the atomic number for silver is 47. Silver 1 10 has a very high neutron to proton ratio, but it's not above atomic number 83. So therefore, silver 1 10 will most likely decay by Bannon decay. And finally, the last site radio s it radioactive ice tube that we're going to be looking at is Mercury 1 97 meta stable now our meta stable radioactive isotopes. Those are the ones that have Ah, there in the excited state they have ah, lot of energy. Very high energy. So any time you see this meta stable, um, are isotope is going to decay by, ah gamma decay. So our mercury 1 97 meta stable is going to decay by mercury decay. Excuse me by gamma decay.

So for this problem, we're given a few atoms and were asked to determine which type of nuclear decay each new Clyde is most likely going to go, so to be able to determine that we're going to be utilizing the neutron proton ratio for each species in question the reason for that. As I've included in this graph, um the green species represent the stable isotopes for different elements, and the yellow dots represent unstable isotopes. And what you can see is that the neutron and proton ratio is a good way to indicate whether or not a species will be stable. And if the neutron and proton ratio is too high for a given predicted range, it indicates that there are too many neutrons and we will most likely undergo beta decay to convert it to trying into a proton in the nucleus. And conversely, if the neutron and proton ratio is too low, that means we need to convert some neutrons, two protons, which we will do by admitting a positron. So for each of the four species listed, we're just gonna take a quick look at the graph to see where they fall and then decide which type of decay is most likely to happen for that species. So first, starting with the Atheneum 1 14 and we go over here to the graph, you can actually see the proscenium is included as one of the examples Iridium 1 14 would fall somewhere of here, uh, quickly or easily spaced in the yellow zone. So, that tells me, is that radium is most likely to undergo beta decay because we need to convert some of these neutrons and the protons and get this nucleus to be a little bit less heavy and neutron count. So what that's gonna do is we're gonna admit a beta particle that's gonna convert our radium two rhodium. Who's gonna do the same thing for the other three elements in our problem? So if we look at radium, radium in general is gonna be unstable isotope. But it's neutron and proton count actually is a little bit low. So we're going to see this one the minute a beta particle because you want to convert one of those protons into a neutron inside the nucleus. So we will see radio turn into Francie. Um, this same thing is going to be true for zinc. Zoinks, Proton neutron count is too low, so we will see a beta particle emission in order to form copper 58. And finally, if we look at Neon Yan's neutrons protons ratio is much too high. It means that we're going to admit a beta particle and convert or 31 neon into 31 sodium.

All right to predict the most likely what is okay and then also write the nuclear crazy that goes with it. We have to first calculate the Enzi ratio and see if it's too high or too low. If it's too high, we go through beta decay of It's too low. We go through positron emission or electron capture. So here we have our you won 14. So when we do the ratio, we get 1.6. That's too high because we're even one. So we know that undergoes beta decay, and that's written the nuclear question. Are a 2 16 is too low, So we go through positron emission, and this is the nuclear equation we get. This is a positron. You also could get the too high, too low from stable or unstable plot. 20 points for the book. Prizzi's 58 Theo ratio is too low, so we created positron, and this is the nuclear question. Get another part of the drum. This one's below one. And then for me on 31 it's too high. It's wave of one. So you baited okay, and this is a beta particle

If we start with Breault Main 80 and we looked at the molar mass. The average more massive Romy. We see that it's 79.9. So this could be considered having more neutrons than what is stable and with more neutrons, we need to decrease the neutron to proton ratio on the way to do that is through beta mission. So beta mission would occur producing crypt on 80. We look at California that has an atomic mass far above the 87. This the last naturally occurring, um stable isotope 82 actually 82. So anyway, the point being this is far above the zone of stability. And if you're above this honor stability, then you undergo Alfa Mission Alfa Mission would occur, producing in this case, curium 2 36 and we have cobalt 61. The atomic massive cobalt is 58.9. So we have too many neutrons here. So we're undergoing toe undergo beta mission. Then if we look at carbon 11 Carbon 11 the atomic average atomic mass, the cardinals 12. So it has too few neutrons. In order to get neutrons, we can undergo elect electron capture or positron emission. I'm showing just positron emission here


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