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A paralog is a gene ingene in species__species, while an ortholog is a duplicatedduplicated; one; twomutated; one; oneduplicated; two; onemutated; one; two...

Question

A paralog is a gene ingene in species__species, while an ortholog is a duplicatedduplicated; one; twomutated; one; oneduplicated; two; onemutated; one; two

A paralog is a gene in gene in species__ species, while an ortholog is a duplicated duplicated; one; two mutated; one; one duplicated; two; one mutated; one; two



Answers

A transgenic organism_________. a. carries a gene from another species b. has been genetically modified c. both a and b

We've developed the technology. Still right. Cut out piece of pieces of DNA. You do that white, cut out pieces of DNA and then put them into a cloning vector. Or maybe we can integrate them directly into genomes. Right. So this organism, the screen organism, has a bit of the reds DNA in it. And so what is the screen organism called? Right, So this is we have a The word is called transgenic. A transgenic organism has a gene from another, right? So it's being transferred or not its own. So transgenic organisms have genes from another organism, and this could be used when we're looking at What does that What effect is this gene have? Maybe we want to see what effect it has in a different organism or a different species. Or maybe we want to Ah, copy this gene and into this organism, and so that will allow it to maybe produce us er in chemical that it can't before. So we use this an insulin production, right? We use transgenic transgenic microbes in order to produce insulin for humans. So it's the answer here is a right. It does carry a G from other species, but also has been genetically modified. Right, So the genome of this Ah, the screen organ has been modified. So this green organism is transgenic. It carries. It cares this gene from another species, and it's been genetically modified. So the answer is C, both A and B, and that's what a transgenic organism is.

All right, So this question is asking us what a transgenic organism is. So the first happened defunding over that we may not know is to break that word up into parts that we do. So when I look at the word transgenic, I see a breakage point here between the parts Trans and Jean IQ. No one can think of the word Trans as referring Teoh a transfer. And I can think of that second part of the word Jean ec based on how it sounds. I know that this is referring Teoh jeans Jean IQ literally translating thio of or relating to jeans. So now we're the human organism which has undergone a transfer of jeans. One credible breakage years. You can see this transfer usually goes a little something like this. You'll have a, uh, chunk of DNA from one species. Will call this species a and you'll have another chunk of DNA from a second species and we'll call this species be here. So species, they may have this interesting gene that we want Teoh transfer two species be will create a little breakage here to show where we're gonna insert that trans gene, which is how we refer to that G Never transferring. And what will be left with after that insertion? Is this new section of DNA? A With that inserted. Okay, Jean, from the first species A no. Where you refer to this organism that holds this DNA as a transgenic organism. Something a label, a tea. Oh, here. So know this process of transfer insertion is a type of genetic modification, which means that a transgenic organism has undergone a genetic modification where a gene has been transferred from one species to another. That tells us that it transgenic organism is a genetically modified organism that carries at least one gene from another species.

A graft in surgery is where a certain tissue of the body is transplanted on to an area that needs it. And there's four different types that we're gonna discuss right now. The first is called an autographed, and this occurs when tissue from an individual is transplanted to a different part of that same individual. So auto meaning self so that's same individual. So it's like if you had a accidentally needed a skin graft and they transplanted skin from one area of your body to another area of your body. Same individual second is called Allah graft. And this is when the graft is from a non genetically identical member of the same species, the same species but genetically different species a different genetically. And that's Allah graft and third, called xeno graft. And this is when the graft is from a different species live in a recipient. So if you have an accident and you need a skin graft example of a Xena, graft would be taking skin from a pig, let's say in translating it to a human, and then the last we're going to talk about is called ice, a graft Mrs similar to Allah graft. Um, same species. Oops. So, for example, human to human. Same species. But these have to be genetically. I didn't call, so they could be twins. So genetically identical. I think it's helpful to look at the prefix of all these, um, and at least autos. Very clear. So I hope this helps guys.

So in order to answer this question first we have to understand what paralysis genes are. And in order to do that, I think it's best to break down the term itself. So a little bit of entomological context that might not be clear in this moment is that the word paralysis actually came from the word homologous in that it was sort of like how the term cheeseburger uses the term hamburger takes off the first, uh, excuse me, the first syllable and ads on the cheese. That's basically what paralysis did. And for context, uh, just to refresh your memory. The word homologous means same kind, quote unquote. So that last really just means kind. And in this evolutionary biological context, homologous genes air those that are usually in two different species that can be traced back to a common ancestral gene. And we can see how these genes changed or didn't change in order to make some analyses about evolutionary pressures and the changes in these lineages over time. And so now that we have that set down, we can turn our attention to Pera, the first um, which has many different definitions, the most common being adjacent to our next to, but in this context, it actually means something a little different. Uh, here, pair of means distinct from but analogous to that's not used all that often in English, but a good example of a term that uses this, uh, front. This prefix in a similar way, is paramilitary, which refers to forces that act like a nation's military but aren't officially part of the military. That's probably one of the most common uses of that prefix in English, for if that helps you remember the and at an analog for this term. So we have here a term that's referring to something that is similar but distinct from homologous genes. What could that mean? And how might we figure out which of our different answer choices are correct? Well, if we actually take a look at our options, we can automatically remove Option B C. Indeed, all three of those a related to changes or mutations in the genetic code or in an amino acid sequence that is encoded by a certain gene. These aren't these can be traced back to a number of different events in a follow genic tree. They are more broad examples of evolutionary change, and the term that we're looking for is something that will bring us closer to, um, homologous type situation. That's what we're looking for, not a moment of mutation. And so it with that being said, we have now two options left A and E. So how might we figure out which is which? Well, let's go over what happens in each event and what things we tend to use in order to categorized the genes involved. So if the first example is a speciation of it, this is the moment when, uh, a single ancestral species here is like, ah and ah, wildcat say, from however many thousands of years ago. And then, at some point that lineage split into two different species. This was the speciation of that. And this is how. Now today we have two distinct species the domestic cat and the European Wildcat. And our question is, as biologist when did this occur? Why did it occur? And how can we tell, like at what genes do we find evidence of this speciation of it happening, And so this is in the speciation event, given the first word in the term. We're looking at different species. And in this case, as I was saying earlier, we would look for something like a homologous gene that would be shared between these two species but might be changed in some way, and some probably aren't all that changed. And then we would figure out Okay, what's similar? What's different and they all trace back. We know to the San Cess Tral Wildcat species so we can figure out what genes have mutated since then. And in this case, we're looking to something for something that's much more in line with the original definition of the term homologous genes. And so we're looking for here, a straight home ology. In other words, we're looking for in or Thal bogus G Ortho Liga streams air the binary opposite of parole Agus genes in that in this case, this opening stem Ortho means straight, so it's essentially the original meaning of the term homologous gene, or that which is related to a speciation of vet but, uh, split a lineage into multiple different paths, which means that option A is not what we're looking for. But that means that our answer is duplication of it and you might be thinking, Well, how is that applicable in this situation? And if we take a look at this example, let's say, let's say we do. We want to take a look at a gene in the domestic cat species. And originally, let's say, in older populations there was only one copy of the street. There's only one version, and then at some point, this gene was duplicated, and over time these applications gained new mutations of their own. And now we have two different versions, G one and G two, and this is all occurring in the same species. But as you can see from the similarities between this chart and this chart, we have essentially very similar dynamics at play. The only difference is that instead of creating an entirely new species, we just have the creation of a new gene. And this is what the term paralysis Ghous means essentially, once we actually apply it to a genetic context. Paralysis and the terms of similar but distinct from hm ology is that what happens in the aftermath of gene duplication is similar to what happens in the creation of homologous genes. But it's distinct from that in that this is all occurring, usually in a single species. And that is why option E is our


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