5

In your own words, explain how antibiotic use can causenatural selection for antibiotic-resistant bacteria....

Question

In your own words, explain how antibiotic use can causenatural selection for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

In your own words, explain how antibiotic use can cause natural selection for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.



Answers

Explain antibiotic resistance observed in bacteria in light of Darwinian selection theory.

This video deals with antibiotics and how they place an evolutionary pressure on bacteria. Now bacterium have a cell wall. And for the majority of them that cell wall is constructed from alternating proteins, Nag Nam knack and they have a bond in between them. That bond comes from a a beta lap damn ring that allows them to bind together. Now there is a class of antibiotics called beta lac tams. Uh The most famous of which is penicillin. Now you see alpha beta, that's the shorthand notation often used in labs for antibiotics. So beta lacked um antibiotics mimic this ring. We're gonna call that our beta lacked um rank. They mimic this ring. So when cells when bacteria are a sexually dividing they are beginning to rebuild their cell wall. And during this process the beta lack damn ring. It's gonna be hanging out over here. So instead of binding where it's supposed to which is between Nam and nag, we're instead going to get a bind between Nam and our antibiotic. This leaves the cell wall and complete. Which is deadly for the bacteria. That's how this class of antibiotic works. So what can happen is because we have this selective pressure now that any cell or any bacterium that has this fatal act um ring at this finding site is going to die. Uh And we're going to have a mutation occur where now the nametag binding site is not going to be exactly a beta lacked. Hammering. It's it's maybe going to be something slightly different. Let's draw a square instead of a circle. Uh Because we have this mutation occur between Nam and Nag. The new strains of bacteria that have survived are going to all have this mutation which makes them immune to our beta lacked um class of antibiotics. Now how does this work? Evolutionarily we have a uh a really interesting phenomenon occurring here where because we have a bottleneck where we had at one point all of our bacteria classes and I'm just gonna put lots of dots for bacteria classes up here. They all at one point except for say this one bacterium contained the traditional battle Upham binding site. Now we're going to bring in our bottleneck event which in this case is the introduction of penicillin and all of those guys died except for the one that had the mutation. And on the other side of that bottleneck, this singular bacterium survived and it's going to divide and then it's going to divide again and so on and so forth until all offspring that's come from this originating bacteria share this common mutation. And that is how antibiotics can put a selection pressure on bacteria.

Hi. So this video is going over a problem 10 of biology concepts and investigations. 3rd edition in Chapter 34. This chapter is going over the immune system. Um And this is talking about bacteria. How do we become immune and antibiotic resistance? So when we get a bacterial infection along at the times they prescribe us antibiotics and these antibiotics are meant to kill bacteria in a certain way. And usually these antibiotics come and they say you know take twice a day Um for 10 days or something like that. Now how bacteria become resistant to antibiotics is. So if you have a population, well you have a population of bacteria And you hit it with antibiotics for five out of those 10 days and then you decide oh I'm feeling better I'm going to stop my antibiotics. What happens is these antibiotics kill off most of the bacterial population. But this one was a little bit stronger and they call them resistant populations. And now these resistant populations of bacteria usually need a higher dose antibiotic um for a longer period of time to actually die. Um so that's why you take it for 10 days to make sure that all of these bacteria die and not a single one is left. But if you stop early might leave those stronger bacteria lying around and then once you stop antibiotics now it has more space to grow. And so all of these bacteria are going to be very very strong. Right? So it it makes a lot of resistant bacteria or as it would have been nice for an easy for the antibiotics to kill that one bacteria that's a little bit resistant. Now you have whole population of resistant bacteria and this antibiotic is not going to cut it. Um It's learned from this antibiotic it knows how to um and that's how to not be affected by it. And so this is how you get populations of bacteria that are resistant. Um This is a really dangerous problem with tuberculosis right now. Um tuberculosis is people are not taking their antibiotics which tuberculosis needs a very high dose and long term antibiotics and if people don't take them as strictly as they should be then we are allowed we're killing off the susceptible bacteria tuberculosis and it allows the resistant ones to flourish. Um And so this is bad because now our treatment for tuberculosis can be going out of date. Um And that the whole new resistant population is what's popping up. So um antibiotic resistance is very dangerous and um this is why it's so important when you are given antibiotics too Take them on time. So if it's twice a day you should take it you know halfway through the day so every 12 hours um And you should take it for the full 10 days. So don't just stop because you feel better because you feel better because most of the bacteria died but not all of the bacteria died now. How do we become immune to specific bacterial species? So when you're infected with a bacterial species and here's your DNA in there you have this bacteria has certain proteins on its surface and it's usually proteins that are specific to that bacteria. There also might be things within the bacteria. I thought this can go for basically if you have a specific protein on the surface what's going to happen is your immune system cells. So your macrophages and dendritic cells they are going to gobble up this bacteria and break it down and send it to your lymph nodes and in your lymph nodes this is where your immune cells get trained to fight this bacteria. And so you have B cells and T cells that um you're basically training in p cells make these things called antibodies. And you've probably heard about antibodies in the context of vaccines and um previous infection stuff like that. So your antibodies they are specific for a certain protein where what's called antigen. And on the androgen there is an epic tope or an epitaph hope on an anti gin. So what happens is these antibodies are little proteins and they look something like this. They basically lock on that protein and like target or what's the word, label it for destruction. So these these cells can find them even easier and destroy them. It also keeps them from binding to our own cells so that they can't get in anymore. A lot of the ways that fire or viruses usually bind receptor on ourselves and then they get in ourselves that way and recap acc so um for example we can have a protein on the surface of our bacterial cell that looks like this and this whole protein or part of a protein would be an anti gin. But our antibodies that lock on right here and this is a very simplified drawing of an antibody very big. This these little parts that are specific those are called epitaphs. And so what happens is we have our B cells and our T cells of our immune system that make antibodies an antibody but then it also can make memory B cells and these can be turned on even faster when you see this bacteria again. So for example if you get strep throat caused by a certain bacteria um your body will make B cells and make antibodies. But in order for those b cells to be turned on, a lot of processes have to take place. And so it'll be like 10 days before you start making antibodies and think it's about 7 to 10 days. So it takes a while and you get sick and you feel symptoms. You get that sore throat but you also make memory B cells. So in a couple of weeks when you get exposed to strap again these memory B cells they can get turned on within hours to a day and so you don't have to wait that seven day period. These memory B cells can make more B cells and more memory B cells. And these will make antibodies and this will clear the bacteria before you even start to feel symptoms. So this is how vaccines work is that you expose it to expose your body to a certain epa Tope and your body makes B cells and memory B cells and antibodies against this episode. And so then when you see it again, your body already knows how to fight it. It's like, hey, I've seen this before, turns on a lot quicker. You get a lot faster and more robust immune response. And so then your body clears it before you even out symptoms. Um, hopefully that made sense and helped with their understanding of bacteria and the immune system.

So there are some extremes. Information, but we really want to know is why some antibiotics target back toe bacterial Arnie Poole Emory's. So antibiotics need to selectively target bacterial structures and functions that are essential for life but unique are sufficiently different from the equivalent structure and functions of the animal hosts. Bacterial our people and race fits these criteria as its function is obviously essential. Yet a structure is sufficiently different from the several eukaryotic or in April in races. So, um, aren't a plum Aries, Um, is essential but unique. These differences make it possible to develop drugs that, specifically buying bacteria are nice plum ways but have little or no affinity for Eukaryotic, our name Poland races.

Bacteria are single celled per carry out organisms. Unlike Eukaryotic organisms, they like a necklace. Instead, their DNA is clustered into a single chromosome at the center of their cell, as well as a numerous class minutes, which are essentially small rings of DNA. Genes that promote resistance to antibiotics are often located in a plasmid. Additionally, bacteria sometimes happen Phyllis, which is a hollow appendage that bacteria used for lateral gene transfer in other words, forgiving positives to other bacteria. So more of the populations has the gene necessary to survive. The cell wall in bacteria is sometimes surrounded by a capsule made of a sticky material. This capsule helps bacteria adhere to services on the host. It also makes it harder for if I go psychosis to occur from Bre, which are stiff. Fibres also promote sticking to a host. Finally, motile bacteria often have a flood Jelen, which is a long row kating appendage that promotes movement


Similar Solved Questions

5 answers
AlreHcenUzz tbe tamplalc bcbw consiuci MO diagram for the BN mokcule and use it to answcr thc following qucstions diagnm Iike the onc bebor, RN would mpresentedby Atomthc complelcd diagam fx BN, thc numbct o( clcctons bonding orbitals is; antibonding orbitk icWhat is thc bond order? If 4 frection [email protected] ebrakAtognic otbiuls uomAromic ortiul Mana
AlreHcen Uzz tbe tamplalc bcbw consiuci MO diagram for the BN mokcule and use it to answcr thc following qucstions diagnm Iike the onc bebor, RN would mpresentedby Atom thc complelcd diagam fx BN, thc numbct o( clcctons bonding orbitals is; antibonding orbitk ic What is thc bond order? If 4 frection...
5 answers
LAl LWVldMMSHMM W A {""} Ix: LrAmrutlom [r inlu such Lhal %" < 5 icletutity HII;LI} {IIilFiud Awu yr 5 0 7. (; (u Le Uluc:
LAl LWVldMMSHMM W A {""} Ix: LrAmrutlom [r inlu such Lhal %" < 5 icletutity HII;LI} {I Iil Fiud Awu yr 5 0 7. (; (u Le Uluc:...
5 answers
[-/1 Points]DETAILSLARCALC11 7.2.029.Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by the graphs of the equations about the X-axis ~ZxX=0 X =3Need Help?Read ItWalch ht
[-/1 Points] DETAILS LARCALC11 7.2.029. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by the graphs of the equations about the X-axis ~Zx X=0 X =3 Need Help? Read It Walch ht...
5 answers
73.13 Ted Vdno Oen?? phcren Bubalr" Uie #ua obeene ]end nunmtrnI Canat aamaela UeaIha auttaeQulM cunezugan anfilaltnt ! Jatr AultunWated Ealon Tho Vatune [aetly @umeiat eeite Unelntnn OuhuenmineWaleF0izAinlCla tn KIn !ot Iabla 0" Ch-Sque# UMlazal anluanee Etbny eunto "Ouceo-Lr IadIncu Oborual plDICielun pnd {A click Clad I twAn purtachowing
73.13 Ted Vdno Oen?? phcren Bubalr" Uie #ua obeene ]end nunmtrnI Canat aamaela UeaIha auttaeQulM cunezugan anfilaltnt ! Jatr Aultun Wated Ealon Tho Vatune [aetly @umeiat eeite Unelntnn Ouhuenmine Wale F0iz Ainl Cla tn KIn !ot Iabla 0" Ch-Sque# UMlazal anluanee Etbny eunto "Ouceo-Lr ...
5 answers
8 2, ISI <4,f(w) IL2,si 14 < r < 0,Vz,silx >01
8 2, IS I <4, f(w) IL 2, si 14 < r < 0, Vz, sil x >01...
5 answers
Eigen vector(s) of the matrixis (are)Select one: (O,0,t) b. (0,t,0) (t,0,0) d. (0,0,1)
Eigen vector(s) of the matrix is (are) Select one: (O,0,t) b. (0,t,0) (t,0,0) d. (0,0,1)...
1 answers
A uniformly charged ring of radius $10.0 \mathrm{~cm}$ has a total charge of $75.0 \mu \mathrm{C}$. Find the electric field on the axis of the ring at (a) $1.00 \mathrm{~cm},$ (b) $5.00 \mathrm{~cm}$, (c) $30.0 \mathrm{~cm},$ and (d) $100 \mathrm{~cm}$ from the center of the ring.
A uniformly charged ring of radius $10.0 \mathrm{~cm}$ has a total charge of $75.0 \mu \mathrm{C}$. Find the electric field on the axis of the ring at (a) $1.00 \mathrm{~cm},$ (b) $5.00 \mathrm{~cm}$, (c) $30.0 \mathrm{~cm},$ and (d) $100 \mathrm{~cm}$ from the center of the ring....
5 answers
2 Kl: 1 2 4 tansfonabion from Mz,2 7 J2 ~5 such that:)-[8: ([9 %)-[: 7a
2 Kl: 1 2 4 tansfonabion from Mz,2 7 J2 ~5 such that :)-[8: ([9 %)-[: 7a...
5 answers
Use the following information. The coordinates of the vertices of a triangle are $A(1,3), B(9,10),$ and $C(11,18)$.Suppose each coordinate is multiplied by $2 .$ What is the perimeter of this triangle?
Use the following information. The coordinates of the vertices of a triangle are $A(1,3), B(9,10),$ and $C(11,18)$. Suppose each coordinate is multiplied by $2 .$ What is the perimeter of this triangle?...
5 answers
Find the angle between the given lines. (Round your answer to two decimal places:) X= 4 y = 5+2t, 2 = -2t x = 3 + 3 $, y =1 + 6 $, 2 = 3 - 2 $51.75038.25"520380
Find the angle between the given lines. (Round your answer to two decimal places:) X= 4 y = 5+2t, 2 = -2t x = 3 + 3 $, y =1 + 6 $, 2 = 3 - 2 $ 51.750 38.25" 520 380...
5 answers
3 Lowering two carts down a hill person walks down & hill at a constant speed lowering two carts in front of him as shown:mm2You may assume the wheels of the carts (as well as the contact Draw three surface between the carts) separate free body diagrams: are frictionless. Label which diagram is which. one of each cart and one of the person Label each of the forces. Find the magnitude of each of the four to which forco forces on m1 (Label VOn
3 Lowering two carts down a hill person walks down & hill at a constant speed lowering two carts in front of him as shown: m m2 You may assume the wheels of the carts (as well as the contact Draw three surface between the carts) separate free body diagrams: are frictionless. Label which diagram ...
5 answers
Use power series operations to find the Taylor series at $x=0$ for the functions in Exercises $11-28 .$$$ rac{x^{2}}{1-2 x}$$
Use power series operations to find the Taylor series at $x=0$ for the functions in Exercises $11-28 .$ $$\frac{x^{2}}{1-2 x}$$...
5 answers
The gravitational force exerted on a solid object is 5.20 N asmeasured when the object is suspended from a spring scale as inFigure a. When the suspended object is submerged in water, thescale reads 3.26 N (Figure b). Find the density of the object.
The gravitational force exerted on a solid object is 5.20 N as measured when the object is suspended from a spring scale as in Figure a. When the suspended object is submerged in water, the scale reads 3.26 N (Figure b). Find the density of the object....
4 answers
An organization surveyed people in two cities about their favourite movie genre: A chi-square test is performed and revealed the results as shown in the "Graphs Document":Suppose B is larger than 6,what is the value of A?15201012
An organization surveyed people in two cities about their favourite movie genre: A chi-square test is performed and revealed the results as shown in the "Graphs Document": Suppose B is larger than 6,what is the value of A? 15 20 10 12...
5 answers
Question 11Given: f (#) = In(2 _ 1) 2 < € < 6 Calculate the volume generated by rotating about x-axis the given interval: Round you answer to 2 decimal places.Otesioni12
Question 11 Given: f (#) = In(2 _ 1) 2 < € < 6 Calculate the volume generated by rotating about x-axis the given interval: Round you answer to 2 decimal places. Otesioni12...

-- 0.018841--