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1)im having a troble with hardy weinberg equilibrium can you explain and stuff pls2)can you give some example of environmental pressures that can cause change in a ...

Question

1)im having a troble with hardy weinberg equilibrium can you explain and stuff pls2)can you give some example of environmental pressures that can cause change in a species?

1)im having a troble with hardy weinberg equilibrium can you explain and stuff pls2)can you give some example of environmental pressures that can cause change in a species?



Answers

Explain the Hardy-Weinberg principle of equilibrium.

Hi, Ron. So there are multiple ways in which, um, evolution can affect a population. So one example is a stabilizing population syllable selection, and we can think of that as the most in the forest that blends into the ground and is able to avoid predators. So that way, those mice will survive and pass along there treats. And so more mice will be that color as they have a higher survival rate. So that's one example. Um, another one is directional selection, and this one prefers one extreme. And so if we think about a certainly old that is able to help that organism survive better, Um, God, certain oil will be preferred. And one example of this is lots. So when in the 19 eighties there was a fabric that had a lot of coal production, and so suit would cover the trees so they would kind of look like this, and the black spots were able to blend into the tree and avoid predators, while the white or lighter colored wants could not and were eaten by pray. So it ended up that there was an increase in black lots to two directional selection. So that's one example of the extreme. Another example is diversifying selection. It was right, sure more diversifying selection. And this is where it's either, UM, no intermediate. You know, types are able to survive, so the two distinct fino types are typically preferred. So if we think about size, um, so maybe large mice and small mice are able to survive better based on their environment, and then those media mice are not selected for and don't do as well. And so that's when the selection goes towards two extremes. So it's kind of diverse, which is like the name suggests then another one is sexual selection, and that is when females choose their mate work and mates compete for each other based on what they look like. I'm so one way one night, the other custom line this peacocks and the male will have larger feathers that attracts these females, so the males will kind of compete to get the most meats. So those are some examples of evolution affecting populations

Heaven. So the Hardy Weinberg principle is quite important because it tells us thes information or a genetic make up of a population. And so, in this case, the populations illegals and, you know, tight is relatively stable, according to it. So it just assumes that no other forces are acting on this population. Not it's why the genetic makeup is stable. And so we know that equation that we use to the terminally ill frequency and already town as well as that is how you calculate it with us. So it's peace squared. Plus, to pick you plus que square. He holds one, and you're usually given your homeless Vegas. And there is, I guess, numbers. Or you have to determine them. Another thing about the Hardy Weinberg ah equation is that it basically says that the population will remain the same unless an evolutionary force or anything like that acts on it. And so there you have it. Thanks

So we are supposed to explain the theory of evolution in terms of violating, hurting Weinberg conditions. So hardy Weinberg is essentially saying that Leo Frequencies are going to be staying the same in a population so little a and we'll stay on all of, say, 60%. And the little B will say a 40% and they won't change over time. Evolution, on the other hand, is essentially trait, or Khalil's better being selected for. And so this is causing these alil slash traits to be changing over time, which is, uh, like the exact opposite of Hardy Weinberg. And the Straits can change zero mutation, natural selection, sexual selection, genetic drift, etcetera.

In this video, we're going to be looking at Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Um, and if we look at the equation for Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, it's p squared. Plus Q squared equals her. Oops. Sorry. MOOCs um P squared plus two p Q plus Hugh squared equals one. And what this kind of is I want to briefly go over this. We have your piece square. This is your This shows is a ton of different stuff. This this equation here that's been derived. But this is your home? ALS, I guess. Dominant almost like his dominant Gino Typically frequency, um to pick, use your homes, I guess our headers, I guess. Sorry, Gino. Tipping frequency while Q squared is your humble Zionist recesses. So when we're looking at a population that supposedly, um is in meets the criteria for Hardy Weinberg, which will look at it in a little bit, it should follow this criterium. And if we added these together with equals to one, all right. Another variant of Hardy Weinberg equilibrium is you have p plus Q equals one. And these were showing us our Leo frequencies. So if using this week and then better really plugged into this equation to estimate what is our headers, I guess. Gino type er, Gina typically frequency etcetera. Or if we know what our homes, I guess Dominant Alil frequency is weakened then No. What are recessive or are? Uh, uh, Other Leo is, And then we can add those together and it should equal one as long as we're meeting the criteria for Hardy Weinberg. So let's go over what these criteria are. So there's five criteria must be met in order for Hardy Weinberg equilibrium to be valid and a certain in a particular population. Um, one of them is that there should be no natural selection or no type of selection. Um, going on in this population. And we're looking at this again Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. What if it if it is true that the population is in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium? Basically, what it's saying is that from one generation to the next, there is no change in the illegal frequencies. Therefore, evolution is not occurring in this population. And so obviously we can see that if we do have selection going on natural selection, this would cause an impact on our legal frequencies from Gent One generation to the next. Therefore the population would change. And so early all frequencies would change as well and so natural. And if this was about, um, violated, um, this this particular one, the question is, would this effect impact our Gino typically frequencies or our legal frequencies or both, And to me, we can see that first of all, another selection, it goes after a particular FINA type. So therefore, it would impact our Gino typically frequencies, particularly at first, which would therefore have an impact potentially Harley, all frequencies. So it's kind of a cascade effect with that one. Um, the next one we could look at is a mutation. So the next thing that must be met is that there should be no mutations going on in the DNA. Okay, we know the mutations can bring in new trades and and stuff like that. And so if we have mutations, it will have an impact on our little frequencies there. Number three, we would have no migration. So we have migration whether that go be into our leaving a population or going into a population. If we have migration will bring, we're changing our gene pool. And so Therefore, we are changing our little frequencies and artier typically frequencies, Um, by bringing in or having let's leave a certain number of of individuals from that population. Another one is that you would have no genetic drift or no no chance events. So these would be, such as, um, chance events such as natural disasters. Um, let's see, like fire stuff like that stuff is chance events. Maybe there's a disease that comes by, um, that can be deplete a population and usually a chance events. It's not selection where there's a particular genotype that, uh, gets affected more on the other chance. Events usually will attack and and destroy. Just bring a population down from a large population to a small population particular. Not particularly. I'm going after particular trade per se. It could, but usually not on the last one that wouldn't look at his random. Maybe. OK, so this one is something that must be occurring. So basically what this is saying is that we cannot have sexual selection, no sexual selection going on a. So it must be completely random mating there because we know sexual selection will have an impact on a little frequencies um, if 11 example would be, um Ah, plume of John Berger dry. And so the females were quite choosy. Um, in bird species, multiple bird species where they will choose the the most showy mate, the one that has the best plume image, the more most bright blue image. Or maybe has the best nest that's been created. And so, by doing that you are there is some, um, selection going on, which would violate our hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Okay. And so, um and we're looking at this year like you're probably thinking, Well, my goodness, there isn't a population that's meeting this and you're right. I mean, most populations, um, will be violating at least one of these, if not all of them. Right? So this is, in theory, a good thing that we can correlate and say, OK, here's a population and use the math from this and say, Is it? How much is it changing how much selection is going on? Um, and And use this to show at B as an example. Well, if this population was not changing, but one we expect to see. So there's a lot of things this can be used for. Um, but all these you will see a change in a little frequencies or our Gino typically frequency sometimes. And in most the time we would see both there.


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