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While a particular plant will flower during a particular time ofthe year based on photoperiod, we also knowthat there are other factors such astemperature that may ...

Question

While a particular plant will flower during a particular time ofthe year based on photoperiod, we also knowthat there are other factors such astemperature that may have an impact on when thesesame plants flower during any particular year. How do we know that photoperiod is not the sole factorin determining when a particular plant will flower eachyear?

While a particular plant will flower during a particular time of the year based on photoperiod, we also know that there are other factors such as temperature that may have an impact on when these same plants flower during any particular year. How do we know that photoperiod is not the sole factor in determining when a particular plant will flower each year?



Answers

Develop a hypothesis that explains why it might be adaptive for a plant to flower in response to photoperiod rather than temperature.

Let's do a quick example of experimental design. We need to determine which trades and flowers. Different pollinators used to distinguish between them so initially we have two variables flower characteristics like their height, color or smell, and pollinator species like bees, hawk, moths or birds. In order to determine relationships between variables, we need to establish controls. That means this experiment would have many steps and many designs. To test these two variables first, let's restrict them. In this example, experimental design we want to control which species we are letting out in our closed environment. We don't want these species interacting or competing with one another. Since we're just testing their perception of the flowers, we would also want to control some of the flower traits. You wouldn't want one flower to be tall, pink and have smell. A next to a flower that a short red and half smell be. We couldn't tell which trade the species was attracted to. In this case, let's keep all trades constant except for a flower height. One flower or one type of flower will be short and the other tall. And let's test with only bees this round. This means our independent variable would be the flower height and our dependent variable would be the number of bees gathered around each flower. The species in this case the B would be are controlled variable. We need to establish constance as well. During each experiment, we use the same number of flowers. Keep the environment at a constant temperature and test during the same time of day. This ensures no other variables are inadvertently affecting our environment. There's many other constants that need to be set in place. These are just a few examples. With this information. You can redesign this experiment with the number of flour trades and species. We can then analyze the collected data for both relationships between species and flower trades and patterns between the individual experiments. From this experiment, we can learn that it is essential to establish controlled variables and constants in order to successfully study the relationship between certain variables.

Hello and welcome to this question. So we're going to read this out loud together, and then we're going to go through and answer this some inbred strains of the weedy plant, a rabid ops ISD Alania flower early in the growing season, but other strange flower at later times four different rapid ops plants signified by the numbers one through four were crossed on. The resulting progeny were tabulated as follows. So here we see a table. We see the mating pairs, the parents being one and 21 and 31 and 42 and 32 and 43 and four. In this case, we have each member one through four. Meeting with someone else that is not itself progeny stands for is a fancy way to say What are the results of this mating pair? What are the offspring going to be? What are the Children going to be? And then we have these questions below. So what I did before I made this video as I cut up these questions and I laid them out, um, singularly. So it's a little bit easier for us to go through and process what question we're on. So we're gonna start off with a explain the genetic basis for the difference in flowering time. So to make this easy, I'm going to go to the Internet and I'm gonna grab a picture of a RAB, adopt this Arabidopsis Melania, just to make it easy to explain what it is that we're doing. So explain the genetic basis for the difference in flowering time. What this question is asking is why do we have two different flowering times for the same plant genetically? Why does that happen? And there's quite a simple explanation for this, so I'm gonna explain it beneath here. Imagine we have this big line and what this line means is we have some plants that are going to flower early, and we have some plants that are going to flower late. And I told you I was gonna go to Google and find a picture. This is a rabbit. Ops is cute little flower, uh, in biology. We use this for a lot of different experiments because it has a very quick, uh, lifespan and were able to see things happen really quickly and we can use it for a lot of things. So before there was these four different Arabidopsis plants. There used to be just one big Arabidopsis family and a lot of the flowers all came up at around the same time. But as I'm placing more and more of these flowers here, you're noticing they're getting pretty, overly crowded and maybe they're competing with each other. They're taking up too much space in front of each other and they're not able were not able to see all the pretty flowers. But if we go to the edges, we start to see that you can see some plants that are kind of sticking out more than others. We had a bunch of flowers right in the middle here. And what's going to happen in reality is these flowers, the roots are gonna be not be able to absorb as much nutrients. We're going to have the pollinators not able to reach the flowers. We're going to have less sunlight exposed to the leaves into the stem for in order for photosynthesis to happen, and in general we're going to see resources not be able to reach these areas. And the sad fact is these flowers are not going to do very well here in the middle. We're going to see these flowers die off and what we're left with are some flowers that due to random happenstance, they happened to flour a little bit earlier or they happen to flour a little bit later. So these flowers here were then able to make more flowers and they were able to survive. These flowers over here and early were able to make four flowers and they were able to survive. So explain the genetic basis for the difference in flowering time. A good way to write this out. You can look at the text answer for this question. But another way to say this would be over time. Adaptations made by the RAB Adopt sis plant allowed for two separate flowering times in order to increase the long term survivability of the plant over time. This didn't happen right away. Adaptations changes into how the plants grew were made by the rapid app, says plant, and allowed for two separate flowering times in order to increase the long term survivability of the plant. These flowers want to survive. That's the rule of life. You want to create more of yourself, so a way that the Arabidopsis plant found a way to do that was to do this, feel free to pause, feel free to review. Feel free to rewind. I'm going to delete these pictures now and go through with the second question. So second question. Alright, let's put a little check mark here Teaching second question of a how do you know that among this group of plants, the flowering time trade is influenced by the action of a single gene. So in biology, we find that there are a lot of times that things make patterns and this is true in this case as well. You may not recognize it at first, but we see patterns here in the progeny. Let me explain. First thing, I'm going to look at our these 134 lates these 111 lates in these 126 lates compared to the others, there's no early here, so I know that in this case I have 100% late and I see that copied are not copy. But I see that repeated again here 100% are late and here 100% are late. Seeing this I know that these crosses here are always going to produce 100% late due to the genes that we're going to get into in part B for this first mating pair 77 late 81 early and this other pair 65 late and 61 early. What I see here is roughly that's what this little squiggle means roughly a 50 50 split. It's not exact, because things aren't always exactly the same in nature. But we see roughly a 50 50 split here. I can also see that same roughly 50 50 split here, 65 to 61. The key takeaway. How I know for sure that this plant is the flowering time trade is influenced by the action of a single gene. Is this trait right here? 93 32. I see a 75 25% split when I see this. I know for a fact that this is going to be a traditional, stereotypical dominant recessive competition going on right here. We're going to explain that here in this third part, as well as and be before we continue on to put a little check here, so I know that the flowering time trade is influenced by the action of a single gene based on the proportions that I see here. For the third part of this question, which illegal is dominant and which is recessive, I'm going to give you a couple of seconds just to pause and think about which one of these do you think is the dominant trait, And what do you think are the recessive trait? If you're thinking to yourself late, it is the dominant trait. Way to go. So which illegals dominant, which is recessive and all three of these crosses. We see that the late trait is the one that comes out in this case. Here we see that the late trait is the one that is more than the early trait, so we know that the late trait is the dominant trait. So let's do some investigating ascribe Jenna types of the four plants. It's a fancy way to say what Geno types do these four plants have. When I was talking about the second part of a looking at this trait right here 75 25 I know when I see this split, it always indicates that I have a two hetero zegas, uh, meeting up together. So in this case, what we're going to say is we are going to say that a capital G stands for late and a lower case G stands for early. These are Leal's. These are the Alil. These are the genetic traits that are going to be passed on. So with that being said, I'm going to do this answer over here just because there's more space. I know that one and four. I know that one is going to be a hetero Zenga's, and I know that four is going to be hetero sickos. So to find out what the others are going to be, I need to look at what the other competitions are. So I need to find out what two and three are. Let's look at this mating pair between one and two. I see that I have roughly a 50 50 split, which means that I'm going to have half of my jeans being at least one big G and half of my jeans are going to be a little little in order to cross that with this guy. I know that my second is going to be a little G little g. Finally, three. I could do the same thing. I see that we have 100% all late, which means that no matter what, this is going to be a big G big G just to double check ourselves. Let's do some crosses and see what we get when we cross these answers here. So in order to do that, I'm going to make a two by three grid, and we're going to do some crosses in here. All right, so in this case, we're going to have the one by two in this box. We're going to have one by four. And in this box down here, we're going to have to buy four in this box up here. We're gonna have the one by three in this box here. We're going to have the two by three. And in this box here, we're going to have the three by four. Excellent. I'm gonna switch over to my pencil and use a smaller Fine. So when I crossed my one by two, I get big G, little g, big g, little G, little G, little G, little G, little G. When I crossed the one by three. I'm gonna get biggie. Biggie, Biggie, Biggie. Biggie. Little G Big G, little G. When I crossed the one by four, I get biggie Biggie, Biggie little G big G, little G, little G little G. When I cross the two by three, I get the big G little G big G, little G, big G, little G, Big G, little G. When I crossed the two by four, I get big G little G big G, little G, little G, little G. It's, like more like a Y and little G, little G. And finally, when I crossed the three by four, I get biggie Biggie, biggie, biggie. Biggie, little G big G, little G. So let's talk it out. If I cross this correctly, I should have a roughly 50% late and 50% early. And that's what I see up here. If I crossed the one by three, I get all late, and that's what I see up here. If I crossed the one by four, I should get 75% late, 25% early. That's what I see here. If I cross the two by three, I should have all late. That's what I see here. If I cross the two by four, I should have 50 50 roughly. That's what I see here. And finally, if I crossed the three by four, I should have all late. And that's what I see here. So I know that these Gino types are correct. 15. Lastly for questions, See, what kinds of progeny would you expect if you allowed plants one of four to self fertilize and in what ratios? So we know that we have our Gina types here. 123 and four. What happens if we have them self fertilized? So we know for one and four, we're going to have this exact same copy here because we're going to have hetero sickos, times, hetero sickos. So one in four are going to look exactly the same like this. We're going to have a biggie, biggie, biggie, little G, big G, little G, little G, little G. And we're going to have 75% late with 25% early. We see two is going to be a little G little g by a little G, little G. So all of our offspring 42 are gonna be little G, little G, little G, little G, little G, little G, little G, little G, 100% early. And finally for three. We're going to do three over here. We're going to have all big G progeny with 100% late check.

Growth is a consequence thought is a consequence of increase in the quantity in the quantity of pro to class and of protoplasm. Measuring the total Grasmick measuring the protoplasmic growth includes several parameter, several parameters. To name a few. The name of you, increase in height, in Greece, in height, wait number of cells, fresh tissue sample, fresh tissue sample length, area, volume, etcetera. Hence it is difficult ends. It is difficult, difficult to demonstrate to demonstrate anyone, anyone perimeter off para meter of route throughout throughout the life of the life of oh, flowering plant. I hope the solution is clear to you. Thank you.

If a plant has a determinate growth style, they would stop growing once they reached mature size. An example would be dandy lines. Once they mature, they don't get any taller. Instead, the use of energy elsewhere. The plant has an indeterminant growth style. They continue growing as long as it's possible in their environment to keep adding repeat indignance of growth called modules. An example would be branches on a tree. This style of growing is also useful and improving the plant's ability to adapt to its environment and replace any lost limbs.


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