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TimeIHumoral immunity refers to which of the following?Elimination of virally infected cells by cytotoxic cells Downregulation of the immune response Production of ...

Question

TimeIHumoral immunity refers to which of the following?Elimination of virally infected cells by cytotoxic cells Downregulation of the immune response Production of antibody by plasma cells IProduction of cyiokines by T cells

Time IHumoral immunity refers to which of the following? Elimination of virally infected cells by cytotoxic cells Downregulation of the immune response Production of antibody by plasma cells IProduction of cyiokines by T cells



Answers

Which of the following are involved in antibody production? (A) Plasma cells (B) Memory cells (C) Helper T-cells (D) Cytotoxic cells

Everybody. This is Ricky and they were working on problems 15 from Chapter 33. And this is questioning that Hugh Moral me in response. So this response uses a Mary out of cells macro fishes over T cells, etcetera. But the only the unique. So in this response or the B cells So it's video is helpful seeing the next one.

This question asks us to identify which of the following things on this list are part of the community or the adaptive immunity. So let's recall that innate immunity is a set of defenses that are active immediately upon infection and are the same whether or not the pathogen has been encountered previously. So we'll call this, um, like universal. This happens no matter what the pathogen is, and it's the same every time. All right, So, um and then comparing that adaptive immunities so adaptive immunity or acquired immunity is a set of event defenses that is activated in response to specific passages. So we'll just make a note that this is specific. So one way to approach this problem if you feel confident with what each of these things in the list are is you could just identify which ones are specific to to a pathogen or which ones are universal responses. Um, just going through this a little bit more carefully, we can review that the innate defenses include a couple things, um, as faras external barriers. This includes skin, exo, skeleton, acidic environment, secretions, mucus, membranes and cilia. Once the external barrier has been reached, Um another set of things come in. The first would be Vegas. I toe sis by mattress macrophages and, um neutrophils. So we can identify that a is part of the innate immunity. Another really big part of innate immunity is three inflammatory response. And the main function of the inflammatory response is to disinfect and clean injured tissues. So we can also identify inflammation is part of innate immunities. Okay, Now, looking at adaptive immunity so adaptive immunity is enabled by lymphocytes these air white blood cells that, um can become very specialized to have a couple different jobs, One type of what lymphocytes are being lymphocytes or beat cells. And these cells are responsible for producing antibodies so we can identify that is part of the adaptive communities. The other kind of lymphocytes are T lymphocytes, which can be categorized as either helper T cells or saido toxic to cells. Remember that helper T cells themselves do not carry out immune responses. Instead, signals from helper T cells helped initiate the production of antibodies that neutralize pathogens and activate the side of toxic T cells so we can identify. Actually, both of these is part of the adaptive immunity and then just is a quick refresher for sido toxic T cells. These are the cells that will actually kill infected body cells.

This question is basically asking how our site a toxic T cells able to recognize infected body cells. So let's recall that helper T cells send out signals that stimulate B cells to produce antibodies. This signals from helper T cells also activate sido toxic T cells that kill infected body cells. Okay, so how does the sido toxic T cell recognize which other cells harbor invaders? Infected cells advertised their infection by attaching fragments of the invading pathogen to self proteins on their surface, forming self non self complexes. And this is probably the most important term that could should come to mind when you're thinking about this problem. So self norm. So complexes this self, non self complex on an infected cell is like a red flag decided toxic T cells that have matching receptors. Okay, so now that we have some context for this problem, let's look through the answer choices and choose which one is the best choice. Working from the bottom up. Start with D Helper T cells, just help destroy them first. So although helper T cells are important for activating cider toxic T cells, they aren't the reason that saido toxic T cells can recognize infected cells. Um, it's really important the way this question is worded. They say that helper t just helper T cells help destroy them first. Remember that helper T cells don't do destruction on their own. Um so because this isn't explaining why they're able to recognize infected cells. Um, this answer choice is incorrect. Okay, let's look at options. See, infected cells release antibodies in the blood, so we know that B cells are the ones that create antibodies. So this is very clearly not the right answer. Option B. The infected cells produce pathogens. So although infected cells may produce the antigens or proteins of the foreign invaders, this is not what side of toxic T cells need to recognize. Um and so it's It's a tempting answer, but we know that this one is wrong. And then looking at option choice A the infected cells display foreign antigens. Um, this is exactly right. So the cider toxic T cells need this display of foreign antigens with the self non self complexes to recognize infected cells. So we know that option A is the best answer

Today we will have a look at the secondary immune response. The secondary immune response relies on memory cells and it occurred as a result of second and subsequent exposure of the same antigen on the pathogen. Yes. I'm pretty sure one of us has already seen this graph somewhere before. So let's talk about it. A secondary response has no life period. Mhm. Lot period. Mhm. And this is because during a secondary response there are already memory cells present. And because of the memory cells if an androgen is encountered again, the memory cells can encounter actually very quickly and they don't need time to be actively unlike the primary response. And if you recall from the antibody immediately response, memory B cells Mhm. Are already present so they can just simply differentiate into plasma cells. Yeah. And what do class myself do they produce antibodies? Also during the secondary immune response they produce a large amount of immunoglobulin G. As I can see from here. I'm sorry. Here you go. There is a large amount of immunoglobulin G, which is a class of antibodies from if you recall from before because of the memory B cells being readily available to differentiate into plasma cells. Secondary immune response completely overcome infections because the antibody levels remained high for a longer period of time. So just to point out some differences between primary and secondary response. Before we finish, primary immune response is when the indigenous first encountered an inclusive production of antibodies and or cell mediated immunity. Secondary immune response occurs in response to subsequent exposure to a particular androgen. The like piece for sensor for primary immune response is very long. It's about 4-70 and the like fees for Secondary move response is pretty short, about 1- four days. And for primary and real response it takes a longer time for the antibodies to reach their peak. Whereas in secondary in response it does not take that long for antibodies levels to reach their peak. Since there's already memory B cells present that can easily differentiate into plasma cells to produce antibodies. And if you recall there is high levels of immunoglobulin m during the primary immune response because that is the first antibody produced when an antigen is encountered. And for the secondary immune response there is a large amount of immunoglobulin. G. I hope that was not overwhelming and obviously there is more to this topic than I am presenting. So I always encourage students to go research and obviously look up for practice questions and test yourselves to make sure that you know the content thoroughly and I hope that was helpful.


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