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Prionsare cell-based pathogenslose their activity when treated with proteases.are inactivated by the nuclease treatment:are large group of highly diverse proteins.a...

Question

Prionsare cell-based pathogenslose their activity when treated with proteases.are inactivated by the nuclease treatment:are large group of highly diverse proteins.are destroyed by the UV light;

Prions are cell-based pathogens lose their activity when treated with proteases. are inactivated by the nuclease treatment: are large group of highly diverse proteins. are destroyed by the UV light;



Answers

Prions (a) consist of RNA with no protein coat (b) are misfolded proteins (c) cause several important plant diseases (d) are the infective agents of several emerging diseases (e) consist of proteins that stimulate host RNA to produce DNA

Okay corridors of this question. We have to talk about the influence of virus. influenza virus is a Yes sir. Single standard are a virus. Okay. And it has a segmented segmented gino. Okay. Um, no, this virus. Let's do it here. In many cases the virus, it has two important spike proteins. One of them. Yes. Emma located in. Okay then you're one is near a mini leagues. Those are important. A viper teams of influenza virus. And what is the function of Milutin marooning? The function of it is that it is going to buy into cell and it is going to allow entry of the virus into the cell into the host cell. Okay, what is going to know how many days practically the opposite? It is going to remove psychedelic acid from like pertains and it is going two allow the progeny or the virus progeny to exit the host. Okay, so that's those are the conscious of them. Now we have to talk about two important concepts. One of them is anti genic brief. Okay. What is something you need to leave a teen adrift politically. There are minor changes in um burning and your amenities. Okay. Minor changes. Okay. And they a cure due to random mutations, mutations. Okay. To random mutations in day by from a year two here. This is why because of this mine invitations. It is the reason of why you have to get vaccinated against influenza virus every year because because of these random mutations. Okay, people that get that get infected by influenza virus this year are not going to get in new and they can get the disease again next year. Okay. That's something any drift. Minor changes in both like proteins and the other concept is the concept of an epidemic beginning. Chief. Okay. Remember that the genome of influenza virus is segmented. Okay, for example, if you have here one virus and here you have another virus. Okay here you have you're near a many days a in you have a multimillion A. And here you have you have many A. B. And here you have a hemagglutinin B. Okay so because of the segmented genome when these two viruses In fact one host cell, okay they are going to go in fact one host cell. This is the host cell. Because of the segmented genome the segments of both the genomes of these two viruses are going to mix and you're going to get like a hybrid. Okay we're going to get this new virus that may have for example a um a loosening A. And here have the Lebanese army days be Okay. So particularly this is if if this cell was this virus was virus number virus A. And this was Nairobi. This is not this is neither virus A nor virus B. This is a virus C. What is completely different virus? Because of like a mix of both virus A virus B. Okay, this is antigenics shift. And it was responsible for example of The pandemic in US in 1918. Okay. Making 15. Okay. So with this background we can answer the question. Now the question says androgenic blank spike pertains between different bio particles. What in the same host? Okay. It is talking about he's talking about at the genic shift. Okay we'll have the internship procured particularly because of two viruses inside one host cell. Okay so the first blank is going to be shift and the second blank is going to be drift. Why? Because it says that it is the result of point mutations in the spike proteins means in hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. So the first blank is shift and the second blank is drift. And the statement is androgenic shift. Spike proteins between different virus particles were in the same host, whereas, and the drift is the result of communications in the spike proteins.

Were asked to explain how that in some cases, active enzymes can be generated by mutating either Sehring or training residues to boot in it. Yeah, so the negatively charged blue team eight residues. But minute the negatively charged plus so sorry or Fosse's say I mean right use and stabilize the active confirmation of the answer.

Nucleotide excision repair. So U. V. Rays from the sun that cause the formation of perimeter thing timers and these timers are usually finding. So think about when you're in the sun. These UV rays hit your skin and they create these diners. So if you have a functioning nucleotide excision repair enzyme they work to excise these timing timers and this allows for correction of the defects. However, if you do not have a functioning nucleotide excision repair enzyme you will see that these it will not be repaired and this could cause problems with skin damage and possibly melanoma. And so these diamond timers work to distort the DNA structure and they cause replication problems. So that's why it's really important to have a functioning nucleotide excision repair enzyme in process in place. Otherwise it will damage your skin.

Think question to fill in the blank anti genic blank is the result of reassortment of genes responsible for the production of influenza virus spike proteins between different virus particles while in the same host, whereas anti genic blank is the result of point mutations in the spike proteins. So we're looking at two terms that relate to antigens. So our first term is going to be anti genic blank, and the 2nd 1 is also going to be anti genic, but with a different blank here. So the 1st 1 we are looking for a term that will describe the reassortment of genes responsible for the production of spy proteins. So when we see this reassortment of genes, um, anti genic shift will be the result of such a reassortment. And if we're looking at the um, result of point mutations in this ex spy proteins, that is going to be an example of anti genic drift. So our answer here will, for the first blank will be angiogenic shift, and for the second blank, it will be anti genic drift


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