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The hormone epinephrine brings aboutdifferent responses in different tissues. In some tissues, itcauses an increase in inositol trisphosphate (IP3); in othertissues...

Question

The hormone epinephrine brings aboutdifferent responses in different tissues. In some tissues, itcauses an increase in inositol trisphosphate (IP3); in othertissues, it causes an increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP); yet in othertissues, it causes a decrease in cAMP. Explain how a singlechemical signal can bring about such different effects in differenttissues. A complete answer includes (a) the type of receptorinvolved, (b) the type of G-alpha subunit involved, (c) the enzymeproducing the given second

The hormone epinephrine brings about different responses in different tissues. In some tissues, it causes an increase in inositol trisphosphate (IP3); in other tissues, it causes an increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP); yet in other tissues, it causes a decrease in cAMP. Explain how a single chemical signal can bring about such different effects in different tissues. A complete answer includes (a) the type of receptor involved, (b) the type of G-alpha subunit involved, (c) the enzyme producing the given second messenger, and (d) whether that enzyme is activated or inhibited in each case.



Answers

Both epinephrine and cortisol are involved in the body's response to stress. How do the two molecules differ? a. Cortisol is an amino acid derivative; epinephrine is a steroid. b. Cortisol binds to receptors on the plasma membranes of target cells; epinephrine binds to receptors in the interior of target cells. c. Epinephrine mediates the short-term response; cortisol mediates the short- and long-term responses. d. Cortisol controls the release of epinephrine from the adrenal glands.

What are hormone response of its one response Elements are specific sites in the D. N A. Where a hormone receptor complex binds. So was droughts and DNA real quick. So we have this strand of DNA and there's gonna be a hormones response element and let's say it's located here. So what we would have is a hormone receptor complex, and I'll just draw it like this. This complex is going to bind here at this location, and these sites can affect gene expression and are usually located upstream of target genes.

Over the course of the day, an individual can begin to get sleepy because of Adina scene binding to different Adina seen receptors. Typically, what happens is sigh click. A MP is broken down and by fossil diarist races specifically called P. D E s thes, these PD enzymes will break down. Sigh, click A and P two Godino scene mano phosphate during the fight or flight response. Epinephrine well interfere with the breakdown of cycling KMP to this Adina scene. Mano phosphate caffeine, however, blocks this thesis process and increases alertness and sleepiness. Bye binding to the dino seen receptors. So caffeine will act as an antagonistic to Adina Simona phosphate binding to the receptor. So when an individual ingest caffeine caffeine is competing with a dino scene, Monta phosphate in binding to the ad a dino seen receptors and that is how caffeine leads to heighten alertness and sleeplessness.

Hello, everyone. I hope all is well today. I'll be helping you with the fifth problem of the chapter 28 problems. That and five is asking What type of hormones are epinephrine and melatonin? Right, So So you have epinephrine, which we could also say at B, and you might see F B as an epi pen. And so these epi pens, right? What it does is that it interacts also known as adrenaline into your system so we could go into the facts about it. Depends, But that's number were doing. But that's just that what I'm using for an effort epi, right? And then melatonin. What type of hormones are these? So let's go through all the answers and basically drive which ones with the correct one. So we have a lipid derived hormone, so no, it is not. It is not derived from lipids. So then you we have amino acid, Dr Hormones. So maybe so. We put it out right there and then we have peptide hormones. Some maybe, and then we have glycoprotein hornets. And no, it is not gonna be a glycoprotein hormone. So we have peptide hormones and amino acid derived hormones right. And so you might think, Well, I don't know what is really the best answer. So the two most common types of hormones are limpid Dr Tournaments and amino acid, Dr. Hormones. So basically, what we would look at is you have to specifically know the placement of each hormone and for epinephrine, we know that it's an amino acid, Dr Hormone, and then melatonin follows the same exact part. And the reason that it follows in to be amino acid derived hormones and not see is because, ah, both of these hormones are derived from tyrosine and tripped of him, which is the key definition of them. You know, acid derived hormones. So I hope you found the supple, and I hope you have a great day.

This question asked for the impact of a C A M P inhibitor, which I'm just gonna call this camp because that just sounds like too much fun. And so, in order to know this, we need to know how peptide hormone mediated signaling works inside of the cell. And so peptide hormones cannot pass straight to the membrane, so they bind to receptor outside of cell. And this sets off a chain of reactions inside of the cell. And so the hormone that binds to the receptor, this is called the first messenger. And what happens is it can signal a second messenger which would be can't in the way that it does that is that it activates g protein, which then activates run out of room here, a dino psych lace ever and then a dino side place turns a teepee and to camp, and then camp acts as a second messenger. So I'm gonna but second messenger there, you'll see that come up again and again. And this second messenger will activate protein kind aces. So, back to our question, if camp down here is inhibited, which one of these steps is it going to effect? Well, it's not gonna be G protein because that's already happened. It's not gonna be the hormone binding to the receptor that's already happened. It's not gonna be the Adina late cyclists, which I didn't write correctly down here. But that's not gonna happen. Um, and so it's actually going to prevent whatever happens after this step right here, which is the activation a protein kind ASIS. And so that would be the effect of a C A M P inhibitor.


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