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The history of research involving human subjects includes instances of unethical practices and, consequently, the advent of guidelines and regulations to ensure the...

Question

The history of research involving human subjects includes instances of unethical practices and, consequently, the advent of guidelines and regulations to ensure the protection ofhuman subjects' participation in research: Prepare 2-to 3-page report (double-space; excluding title page and references) on the major milestones in the history of ethical issues in research: Include at least 3 milestones A milestone can be an unethical research event or regulation guiding research with human subjec

The history of research involving human subjects includes instances of unethical practices and, consequently, the advent of guidelines and regulations to ensure the protection ofhuman subjects' participation in research: Prepare 2-to 3-page report (double-space; excluding title page and references) on the major milestones in the history of ethical issues in research: Include at least 3 milestones A milestone can be an unethical research event or regulation guiding research with human subjects For each milestone write a brief paragraph: Include at least three references, Use APA style guidelines (No abstract is required) Your syllabus Includes resources for APA style:



Answers

One of the principal differences between the ethical guidelines for human and animal research is: (A) Human subjects can be deceived for experimental purposes and animals cannot. (B) Animal subjects can be placed at much greater physical risk than human subjects can (C) Human subjects must be chosen much more carefully than animal subjects. (D) If humans might physically suffer because of the study, the suffering must be minimal, in contrast to animal studies where any amount of suffering is ethical if it helps to further a clear scientific purpose. (E) Environmental conditions for human studies must be monitored much more closely than they are in an animal study.

So there are a couple of aspects uh, professional ethical standards that are used in research first. Is they are there to prevent any kind of harm from having pain to the participants? They're us. one other thing the ethical standards require is for researchers to fully explain. Yeah, what went on in the research. So the purpose, the steps, the test, everything. So the participants, yes, I'm aware of what happened in the research they participated in. And then with other part of the professional ethical standards. Is it insurers? No confidential information about the participant. Okay. Get out to someone else. Okay, so that's part of the researchers. Picture point of these professional ethical standards are to make sure the participants and researchers and everyone's evolved. It's protected. So right, answer. Bt Yes. Oh, these answers.

This question asked us to choose one of the ethical or social issues and parts a three and give your opinion on the issue. For background information, you might read one of the articles on ethics marked with an asterisk in this six adjusted reading section for Chapter one. So the products for ethical issues are as follows we have. Should a person's genetic makeup be used into turning his or per eligible eligibility for life insurance? Should biotechnology companies be able to patent newly sequence genes? Should gene therapy used be used in people? And should genetic testing be made available for inherited disorders with, for which there is no treatment or cure? So we cannot answer this question for you. You have to form your own opinion on one of those ethical issues. However, what we can do is we can talk about how you would go about answering that question. So the first thing that you want to consider factors to consider here are going to be both sides in any ethical situation. You can't just hone in on one side without acknowledging the other side. We can't ignore the other side because the other side does provide in almost every single instance, very valuable points. And by listening to the other side by examining their views, we can actually make our argument better. So if we look at both sides, then we are able to form a much better argument and going along that we want to have a strong argument based on research so grounded in fact. So if we have an argument as based on Taylor to emotions, if we are just talking about feelings and, um, how we feel our opinions, that is not going to be a strong as grounding our argument, in fact, bringing up data, bring up statistics, using statistics properly and to our advantage, formulating our strong arm it. And finally, what we want to do is we would want to look at it from both the ethical and social perspectives. So this is kind of goes along with both sides. Yes, from an ethical perspective, it would be this way. But what would be better for society? It does society always So does society always good for to ethical fear because there is a theory and tactics that states that anything done for the greater good is ethical so by saving two people, if one person has to get killed in the process, that is still ethical. So the lives of two people was greater than the live of life of one, and that is ethical in one African theory, utilitarianism. So if we are to think about the different ethical theories, we want to choose a theory that we're going to stick with, we can't just use utilitarianism at one point, and then we can and then switch over to content, philosophy and the other. So we want to stick with ethical theory in this case, so that is how you formulate your response and provide your opinion on the issue.

Okay. My avid listeners today we're gonna be doing a W. Test and A. T. Test at the 5% significance level Are null hypothesis is that the average is two. So mu is equal to two. And we are trying to see if it is greater than two. So alternative is new is greater than two data. I have already processed it in Excel which is a very handy tool. I recommend it if you're gonna go a little bit farther and statistics or if it's your major or even if you just want to play around with it because you can make your life a lot easier. Okay so we got like 15 values over here. Wait a second, 18. We have 18 values. I was looking at a different example before We have 18 values from 18 different lakes. Wait no it's the lakes that was looking before right now we're looking at the food choices, The 5% significance level. We have an equals 18. So that means we are doing a right tail test right here and that is going to look like this. Um Just draw something approximately symmetric and that will do and we're gonna chop it off right here and find out what are critical value is Going to the back of the book here and Table five. I'm going to scroll to it in my pdf almost there. Okay, so we're at 18 and equals 18. And our significance is W 0.05. So are critical value is 124. We're doing the right tail test. So this is going to be our shaded region or the rejection region. So what we do is we take all our values, subtract them by two and we get these values here, take the absolute value and then we're going to rank them. Um Starting off we have a bunch of zeros onto four or 5, we got like six zeros here, So we're just gonna skip those and start at seven. And since we got a couple of them we got 789 10 11. We take the average and find out that that is 9.5 and then there's only one of them that isn't one, so that's two, We go all the way up to 14. So we had numbers uh I think it was 7-7-13 where the average was 9.5 and then we take the some of the positive ranks Which is going to be 90 Uh 90 lands us to the left of that critical value there, so therefore we failed to reject the null hypothesis. Uh The average, The average is that it's a two out of four for that food choices. Uh This time around we're gonna be looking at a T. Test for the same data. Um I went ahead and calculated the standard deviation which is 0.7859 So we'll go ahead and substitute these values there. So he got x minus meal. Uh papa, what is our average? Oh i gotta calculate that two, which is 2.5 are given average, meal is too Standard deviation is going to be that big old number 785 9 1. Round up there And take the square roots of the sample size, which is 18. And all of this right here is going to equal 0.5 times okay possibility right here, which equals 2.6992. I just didn't want to round up to 2.7. Um if we look back in the book we have degrees of freedom and -1, which gives us 17. I'm gonna look in the back of the book here for that T. Test. Let's see which table is this right here. Table four 17° of Freedom. We're looking at a 5% significance level 174 So are critical value is 1.74. Oh. And we're looking at something like this, Chop it off right there and we land in the 2.699 Just clearly greater than 1.74. And there was a small mistake made when I was calculating these excel values. Um up here these aren't supposed to be 9.5, they're supposed to be 12 Which makes this 1418. And We have 10 of these 9.51 23456789. So it's gonna be 12 times nine. Mhm. Thank you. Is 108 Plus 18 which is 126. 126 actually gets us right here. So therefore we rejecting all hypothesis At the 5% significance level And just like this 1 2.69 we reject the hypothesis. Um If it weren't for this T test, I would have thought to go back and look and double check that Excel did it correctly. It was a little hiccup with calculating or leaving out the zeros somewhere in the code. But in both cases were rejecting all hypothesis at the 5% significance level.


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