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1. Why is the Fehling reaction positive for aliphatic aldehydes,negative for aromatic aldehydes, and even less for ketones?Fundamentally based on theory.2. What is ...

Question

1. Why is the Fehling reaction positive for aliphatic aldehydes,negative for aromatic aldehydes, and even less for ketones?Fundamentally based on theory.2. What is the theoretical basis (chemical equation) forobtaining the derivative 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone for aldehydesand ketones? What is the importance of obtaining this type ofderivative in the identification of a certain carbonylcompound?

1. Why is the Fehling reaction positive for aliphatic aldehydes, negative for aromatic aldehydes, and even less for ketones? Fundamentally based on theory. 2. What is the theoretical basis (chemical equation) for obtaining the derivative 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone for aldehydes and ketones? What is the importance of obtaining this type of derivative in the identification of a certain carbonyl compound?



Answers

Explain why aldehydes and ketones react with a weak acid such as hydrogen cyanide but do not react with strong acids such as $\mathrm{HCl}$ or $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{SO}_{4}$ (other than being protonated by them).

Okay, so rest why weak acids like hydrogen san? It interacts with out of hiding key tunes as opposed to strong acids And let's say we're in al to hide assets galahad, which there is ethanol and we reacted with Hodgins cyanide and also with Hcl. So the sign ID and the chlorine are going to attack the carbon carbon, Have you got the ac oxide ion? So the Kandahar base of a weak acid is a strong base and it's a very poor leaving group. So instead of reforming the cartoon, it's actually going to deeper donate another Hodgins Sinai because the the Sino group is not going to leave, it reforms the keystone. There's no choice but to deeper in a hydrogen cyanide and we get an alcohol functional group instead you have nuclear fill condition. But in the case of Hcl, it's able to reform the key tune because the college in a base of a strong acid is weak and is therefore a good leaving group. And this is actually a more favorable product. Getting the key tune as opposed to your getting the getting the AL to hide or cartoon as opposed to an alcohol. And we have the original structure. And it would be the same thing with ketones, but I just just not high as an example, and obviously be the same with HBR, other stronger weak acids.

Okay. So just to describe the difference between an alcoholic and a cartoon. So now to hide is um found at the end of carbon chain. This could be either in a ring or a straight street, a street chain hydrocarbon. So if we had personal this is an alcohol. He was Ceo H. And the next carbon is CH two ch through mm hmm. And this is called ethanol. I mean uh Personal busy with three carbons. Another example is um just just don't get the carbon chain. So we had five carbon instead of three 12345 And the a lending positive childhood. Is this gonna be fentaNYL? And the formula for this? Again, C. O. H. Is characteristic of the alcohol functional group. We have three C. H. Two S. Something like this. And then a series three. Okay, so the next one is um describing a key tune. So let's see the same structure Gregory cartoon and upside down. So this would be called purple noon instead of two permanent. Because we couldn't have the key tune on carbons one or three. These otherwise been out hired. Who wouldn't have enough violence. So if you see it on, if you see it like this inside, the chain could be key to. But if we had the structure, you have to indicate the position of the key to him because it could be on carbon three as well. But carbons two and four are the same. If you just turn structure around this would be to Vietnam and if you're on carbon three would be through Vietnam to the N ending and positive Akita. It's another example of an Al Fattah cartoon which is again a straight chain hydrocarbons but can also be a ring as long as it's not aromatic. So you're just a beautiful and so B. Ch I will have to see H two S. 63 Don't be that within an example of a alphabetically tune. So I'm going to do three beaten instead. Yeah, different aromatic structure. You can use the benzene ring as template and aromatic referring to being a ring the same plane and having a candidate system of alternating double and single bonds or a pair of electrons that can simulate a third group but also following huckle huckle rule, which is foreign plus two electrons in this ring. We have each of these carbons sp two and sp two hybridized carbon as one pilot tron to have two year to year to year. We have 16 total and is going to equal one and an example would be Ben's out ahead. Probably this common. So we can also add some situates to the alcohol as well. Another example using the Benzene rings template and with the out ahead here and put a halogen the Ortho position, which is 13 I mean 12 from the outer hood and we can also put in alcohol in the the 1/4 position. So this would be a pair to the outer hood and some examples of in a aromatic you tune using the Benzene rings Temple again said it, good example is set for noon and then keeping the seat if known and adding, I guess this seems substitutes or instead of brown, you can add chlorine but really just anything that changed a little bit and um actually I'm gonna put alcohol, we're here. So the outer hide is a um it's actually out ahead of the kittens are many directors so it's not really realistic to have the product in the Ortho position, some changes around. So again, meta is 13 from the outer heard, 212 Pretty challenging here and um, already and then the same thing for us to it's putting an alcohol here and instead of Birmingham just declaring. So the first one is Ben's out ahead and it's going to be three burma because it's three carbons away from the outer hood and this one is going to be sarah placing the brimming with chlorine for this one and this will be three hydroxy, it's indicating alcohol and he's out of her.

In this Western, we're going to be looking at Ali hides and few tools. Finally, high Zinke tones continue no capital ever. There's a structural feature which distinguishes Ali hides from Keytones, the alley high The company group represented us for lose always appears up the at the end of Oh, the hydrocarbon she this always It was the case. Some example. What's a considerable cover? No group appeals of the end of the hydrocarbon. She and in the case of the cheap one having a group is bonded to happen. Some examples here you can see How about you is bonded to to carbon atoms. And that's the difference between Ali hides. Thank you.

In problem 20.68 We'll discuss the differences between the keystone and the outside. A major difference between the key phone and outside structure is the location of the Carbonell Group. Nikki Tone uh, Harbin. Neil Carbon, which is this carbon is always located somewhere in the middle of the hydrocarbon, but I'll to hide molecule on the right is always located at the terminal and of hydrocarbon. So this is the major structural difference between a key tone and in Al died.


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