4

Abstract Hagfish eyes are markedly basic compared to the pigmented epithelium, a lens eyes of other vertebrates, lacking a and a retinal architecture built of thre...

Question

Abstract Hagfish eyes are markedly basic compared to the pigmented epithelium, a lens eyes of other vertebrates, lacking a and a retinal architecture built of three cell layers: the Plotoreeeptoranchiedeerols and ganglion Cels Concomitant "hrecagilshyeelonging the earliest-branching vertebrate group (Oe fewiessncothats) thi f characters has prompted lack of derived competing interpretations that hagfish eyes represent either a transitional form in the early evolution of vertebrate vision,

Abstract Hagfish eyes are markedly basic compared to the pigmented epithelium, a lens eyes of other vertebrates, lacking a and a retinal architecture built of three cell layers: the Plotoreeeptoranchiedeerols and ganglion Cels Concomitant "hrecagilshyeelonging the earliest-branching vertebrate group (Oe fewiessncothats) thi f characters has prompted lack of derived competing interpretations that hagfish eyes represent either a transitional form in the early evolution of vertebrate vision, previously elaborate organ or a regression from & Here we show the hagfish retina is not degenerating during its ontogeny but instead grows throughoutIce exaea sevegr PAX6+ ciliary marginal zone. The retina has via a recognizable distinct layer of photoreceptor cells that appear to homogeneously express a single opsin ofthe RHTrod opsin class. The epithelium that encompasses these photoreceptors Is striking because it lacks the melanin pigment that is universally associated with animal vision; notwithstanding; we suggest this epithelium is homologue of gnathosome retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) based on its robust expression of RPE6S and its engulfment of photoreceptor outer segments. We infer that the hagfish retina is not entirely rudimentary in Its wiring; despite lacking morphologically distinct Iayer of interneurons: multiple populations of cells exist in the hagfish inner retina and subsets of these express markers of vertebrate retlnal interneurons Overall, these data clarify Agnathan retinal homologles; reveal characters that now appear t0 be ubiquitous across the eyes Of vertebrates; and refine Interpretations of early vertebrate vlsual system evolutlon



Answers

Herring and related fish have a brilliant silvery appearance that camouflages them while they are swimming in a sunlit ocean. The silveriness is due to platelets attached to the surfaces of these fish. Each platelet is made up of several alternating layers of crystalline guanine $(n=1.80)$ and of cytoplasm $(n=1.333$, the same as water), with a guanine layer on the outside in contact with the surrounding water (Fig. $\mathbf{P 3 5 . 4 8}$ ). In one typical platelet, the guanine layers are $74 \mathrm{nm}$ thick and the cytoplasm layers are $100 \mathrm{nm}$ thick. (a) For light striking the platelet surface at normal incidence, for which vacuum wavelengths of visible light will all of the reflections $R_{1}, R_{2}, R_{3}, R_{4},$ and $R_{5}$ shown in Fig. $\mathrm{P} 35.48$, be approximately in phase? If white light is shone on this platelet, what color will be most strongly reflected (see Fig. 32.4 )? The surface of a herring has very many platelets side by side with layers of different thickness, so that all visible wavelengths are reflected. (b) Explain why such a "stack" of layers is more reflective than a single layer of guanine with cytoplasm underneath. (A stack of five guanine layers separated by cytoplasm layers reflects more than $80 \%$ of incident light at the wavelength for which it is "tuned.") (c) The color that is most strongly reflected from a platelet depends on the angle at which it is viewed. Explain why this should be so. (You can see these changes in color by examining a herring from different angles. Most of the platelets on these fish are oriented in the same way, so that they are vertical when the fish is swimming.)

This's Chapter thirty five. Problem number sixty. We have Well, this is a problem that talks about the camouflage and fish. So we have water here, and then the platelets, like for me. And then finally, we have sight of Plaza Away Sea. Each media has a different mix. A reflection going hands one for eats like a puzzle was one for three three, just like water. Now we are looking for the baby blanket, which all the reflection would be in face. So let's look at the interface of water and running their affected, like undergoes face changed by fine. And in fact, the interface of one in the cytoplasm. That doesn't happen because index refraction gone in his hire. Them sort of possums, right? So whatever right light reflects off here. Is Matt gonna have a in second underground face change? So the opal issues between reflected lights is going to be a pie. So then, well, they're still looking at the the constructive interference. So twice the thickness of the gun in his gonna be pulled. The M plus one half lives over and granny right, So then Glenda from here would be to twice the thickness of the going layer times theme mixer. Affection has gone into divided by plus one hat. So we're looking for weapons and one and zero than the land you can calculate for the thickness of the gun and layer is given to us a seventy four men commuters. So the index refraction running is one point eight survivors by one half. We find the big links to be five thirty three centimeters green. If we do the same for the sight of a possum, it's going to let's bolt e the thickness of settle Cousin layer and plus one half a land divided Dynamics repression. Cytoplasm. Um, then for Lambda, we're going to have to to see pen see over and one half one and people zero. This is going to be zero Teo sect of buzz and layer is getting tested one hundred years later. Thick the necks of defections. One, three, three three, actually one or three divided by one hair. We also have five, one hundred thirty three generators, so we have oh, one hundred thirty three of answer knowing part B. Some. This is more like a conceptual question. Grass display. Explain why the stack of layers of these platelet platelets. I'll increase the reflection. Well, I always said buy happened many layers at each interface of more more off the transmitted light. More transmit light gets reflected. Yeah, at each layer. You know, this increases the amount of the light Those reports reflected This increases the are right for each layer that the portion of the president let is being reflected back, so apparently have to eighty percent. Um, uh, these fishkin reflect that, like that falls onto them, which is their high, obviously. So in princey, um, the colored it is most drastic. It figure why the color that is most strongly affected, Ralph lately depends on the angle in which it was viewed. So we need to find a correlation between the angle and the brave one. Again, this is a conceptual question. Well, it's because of different animals. What? What? What we have We have different path. Different lengths, right? Different. Yeah, Lance. So if we have different path lines then, due to this difference in path ones, then the wavelength will also two big ones. He would say Lambda has to change. Right? Has two tunes. Well, this Delinda is even to risk instead constructively, if that's in particular color, that that is viewed from outside. So the reason for that is because we have different path planks now at different angles, so course it's going to affect the Lambda that is beautiful.

Okay, so, uh huh.

So in this girl's name, we have a fish on the skin off the fish is made of successive layers off to come off off to materials. One of them is called one in. I'm gonna call it G on the next material is called cytoplasm. Let's call it See on we have our Siri's off layers off those materials. So guanine, cytoplasm and so on. Now we have a re off like that strikes the surface off the skin off the fish. Honey crosses all off the layers both at every bond. Harriet. Every interface within the layers they liked bounces back. No, What we have to find is what is the web linked off this like so that all of these reflections inter for constructively. So what are we given in this problem? We're given that the refraction index off the guanine is equal to one point act. The refraction index off the cytoplasm is equal to 1.33. The sickness off the off each guanine layer. That means this thickness here is equal to 74 nano meters on the thickness off the cytoplasm layer is equal to 100 nano meters. Sorry. I meant to say nano meters here. So to the remind the webbing that inter first constructively, the first thing we have to do is to figure out whether each of these reflections are in face or not. Now we know that their face off the leg reflective changes by 1/2 whenever we go from a high refraction index toe a low refraction index. So, yeah, is transition from wanting to see the scene? There is no first shift because we're going from high to low. But between seats with insider plus among one in there is a phase shift because we're going from low to high refraction index. So there is no no change here. Change here. No changing there. So the result is that there is only a phase shift every every alternating reflection on that means that each of these race have a phase shift off 1/2 keeping that in mind, then do that in mind the way blanked off the reflected like we used our the following formula that we're gonna do this first for a one in layer. So we have the two times the thickness of the gun in layer is equal to and loose 1/2 times the wavelength over the refraction Index off the layer M Issa uninjured. You're starting from zero. So could be their 012 tree or so on on. We're trying to find the wavelength Landa So we're gonna first. So for Lambda in the equation of off. So we get that lambda sequence to two times a sickness times the refraction Enix over m blues 1/2 honey, We plug in the values we get that two times 74 nano meters times one point egg over I am blues 1/2 Now em can be like any integer starting at zero. We want the lamb that air force into the visible range because that was the problem is asking us to. So if we said m equal to zero, we get at Lambda is equal to 530 Trina, no mirrors, which is in the visible range. This is actually green life now, similarly, we have to repeat the procedure for each cytoplasm layer. So we're gonna be using the same formula, except that we're goingto be replacing the thickness by the thickness of the cytoplasm layer on the refraction index by the refraction index off the cytoplasm layer. So we're gonna be doing it here. In this case, the wavelength is going to be equal to two times t off the other layer times and see over am blues 1/2. So in this case is going to be two times 100 and no mirrors times 1.30 tree Oh, where and blues 1/2 on If we again set up a musical to zero this again give us 533 nano meters So is the same way bling that we got in the first case And so we're talking about being liked, So that means that the wavelength or inter first constructively is equal to 539 millimeters on now. That means that if we look at the skin off, that fish is going to appear green. Um, there is for being this problem. Barbie is asking us why the Siri's office stack layers is more reflective than a single layer. The reason for that is simple is that there is reflection at the interface. So if we only have two layers, we're only gonna be having reflection here, here and there. But if we could move the players, we're also gonna be having reflection at each on the interfaces. So the more layers we have, the more like there's gonna be reflected. And finally, questions. See, they are asking us why. If we look at the skin from a different angle, then the way blank that produces constructive interference changes. Well, In that case, imagine that we're looking at the skin at a different angle. So in that case, the light is going to travel more in a more diagonal pass because we're traveling in a more diagonal path. Then, from the point of view, if they like, the sickness is changing. And if the sickness changes, then the Web link changes as well. So looking at the looking at the skin from a different angle, give us our different thickness and therefore are different. Constructive wave length on the skin is going to appear off a different color if we look at it from a different angle


Similar Solved Questions

5 answers
4) 253 g0) 30.4 gc) 383 g0)51.1g9)573 gDoneWhat amount (in mol) of AIPOA(s) precipitates when 0.060 M aluminium nitrate solution ( [00 mL) is added to 0.080 M potassium phosphate solution (50 mL)? a) 0.006O 6) 0.0060 0,00400.00200.040RESEPlace the following atoms in order of increasing atomic radius: AL, O,P. CI, NeOpen-in;.OCancel
4) 253 g 0) 30.4 g c) 383 g 0)51.1g 9)573 g Done What amount (in mol) of AIPOA(s) precipitates when 0.060 M aluminium nitrate solution ( [00 mL) is added to 0.080 M potassium phosphate solution (50 mL)? a) 0.006O 6) 0.0060 0,0040 0.0020 0.040 RESE Place the following atoms in order of increasing ato...
5 answers
To evaluate the following integrals carry out these steps Sketch the original region of integration R in the Xy-plane and the new region S in the UV-plane using the given change of variables b. Find the limits of integration for the new integra with respect to and Compute the Jacobian Change variables and evaluate the new integral. 1 xy dA where R is the square with vertices (0,0), (4,4), (8,0). and (4, 4); use x = Zu+ Zv, y = Zu - Zv_
To evaluate the following integrals carry out these steps Sketch the original region of integration R in the Xy-plane and the new region S in the UV-plane using the given change of variables b. Find the limits of integration for the new integra with respect to and Compute the Jacobian Change variabl...
5 answers
Is it possible to define f (0,0,0) so that continuous at (0,0,0) ? rY J(y,2)-?+y+z F(epw) F(010,e (5iz [(jv j)
Is it possible to define f (0,0,0) so that continuous at (0,0,0) ? rY J(y,2)-?+y+z F(epw) F(010,e (5iz [(jv j)...
5 answers
Xbar-R Chart of TimeUCL=22.761 JX=17.10LCL=114522SampleUCL=17.72[ 1R=7.77LCL=022SampleResults exclude specified rows: 5.8, 49.52, 57*60
Xbar-R Chart of Time UCL=22.76 1 J X=17.10 LCL=1145 22 Sample UCL=17.72 [ 1 R=7.77 LCL=0 22 Sample Results exclude specified rows: 5.8, 49.52, 57*60...
5 answers
20 pF25 pF30 pF
20 pF 25 pF 30 pF...
5 answers
Question 115 ptConsider a motorcycle with a mass of 400.0 kg (including the rider) speed 30.0 m/s "traveling Up a hill at 3 constantSuppose the air resi stance motorcycle. provides constant torce of 250. If the hill"s 0 N angle ofi inclination opposing keep the that constant 110.0? from motion speed_ Justify Ithe of the vour horizontal, answer find using" "the Your power rationale needed andi equa from tions the used: motor to0iHIMI
Question 1 15 pt Consider a motorcycle with a mass of 400.0 kg (including the rider) speed 30.0 m/s "traveling Up a hill at 3 constant Suppose the air resi stance motorcycle. provides constant torce of 250. If the hill"s 0 N angle ofi inclination opposing keep the that constant 110.0? from...
5 answers
In a nuclear fusion reaction; the mass of the products is
In a nuclear fusion reaction; the mass of the products is...
5 answers
For the following functions, state the following; and usc those answcrs to sketch the graph State the midline (vertical shift) , If any: B. State the phase shiit (horizontal shift) , if any C. State the amplitude (if applicable). State the period, and the alue that this gives Sketch the graph of the function. showing periods:f(s) 2sl0
For the following functions, state the following; and usc those answcrs to sketch the graph State the midline (vertical shift) , If any: B. State the phase shiit (horizontal shift) , if any C. State the amplitude (if applicable). State the period, and the alue that this gives Sketch the graph of the...
5 answers
For an orbital, a node isa. A surface inside which there is a $90 %$ chance of finding the electron.b. The mid point of the orbitalc. A surface where there is no change of finding the electrond. A surface where there is a maximum probability of finding the electron.
For an orbital, a node is a. A surface inside which there is a $90 %$ chance of finding the electron. b. The mid point of the orbital c. A surface where there is no change of finding the electron d. A surface where there is a maximum probability of finding the electron....
5 answers
A vehicle moves along circle of radius 0.Sm with speed of 25 m/s. The angular velocity in revolutions per minute of the vehicle is nearly
A vehicle moves along circle of radius 0.Sm with speed of 25 m/s. The angular velocity in revolutions per minute of the vehicle is nearly...
5 answers
Use the definite integrals below to determine the value of the following definite integrals pts)f(x)dx = 4g(x)dx = 7f(x)dx = -8J8 f (x)dx5(f(x) 9(x))dx =58(2f(x) - 39(x))dx55 f(x)dx =
Use the definite integrals below to determine the value of the following definite integrals pts) f(x)dx = 4 g(x)dx = 7 f(x)dx = -8 J8 f (x)dx 5(f(x) 9(x))dx = 58(2f(x) - 39(x))dx 55 f(x)dx =...
3 answers
Match each matrix with the proper descripticn of its effect On vectcrsMatrixTransfonnation CescriplionThe 90-degree clockwise rotation about the positive The 180 degree rotation about the = axis The reflection across the plane The reflection across Ihe z: planeThe projection onto the plane
Match each matrix with the proper descripticn of its effect On vectcrs Matrix Transfonnation Cescriplion The 90-degree clockwise rotation about the positive The 180 degree rotation about the = axis The reflection across the plane The reflection across Ihe z: plane The projection onto the plane...
5 answers
0 8 IC 8 p 4 4 @ 0H 0 I Il Ill Iil 1 Il X X iii Mil 1 3 6 1 € 3 2 [ 8 9 1 n 43
0 8 IC 8 p 4 4 @ 0H 0 I Il Ill Iil 1 Il X X iii Mi l 1 3 6 1 € 3 2 [ 8 9 1 n 43...
5 answers
ProblemA 3.5 kg block is pushed along horizontal floor by a force F of magnitude 15 N at an angle 0 40o with the horizontal The coeflicient of kinetic friction between the block and the floor is 0.25_ Calculate the magnitudes of a) the frictional force on the block from the foor and b) the block's acceleration [3+3]
Problem A 3.5 kg block is pushed along horizontal floor by a force F of magnitude 15 N at an angle 0 40o with the horizontal The coeflicient of kinetic friction between the block and the floor is 0.25_ Calculate the magnitudes of a) the frictional force on the block from the foor and b) the block&#x...
5 answers
KeDenib5,.333 pone Ivoltage source (Express your ams el decilnlue cuctiidhoun belot'V 17 02V R1 phce Wulh no units)R 2 10,74and R g 14.73Calculale Ihe totab nower (in W) supplied
KeDenib 5,.333 pone Ivoltage source (Express your ams el decil nlue cuctiidhoun belot'V 17 02V R1 phce Wulh no units) R 2 10,74 and R g 14.73 Calculale Ihe totab nower (in W) supplied...
5 answers
Use the givon information to find the exact value of cach of tho follwing:sin20cos 20tan 20sln 0 = 0 lies in quadrant II355 sin 20 =(Simplify your answer Type an exact answer; using radicals as noeded: Use integers or fractionscos 20 =(Simplify your answer Type an exact answer; using radicals as needed: Use intogors or fractionsEnter your answwerIne answer box and then click Check Answerpart remaining
Use the givon information to find the exact value of cach of tho follwing: sin20 cos 20 tan 20 sln 0 = 0 lies in quadrant II 355 sin 20 = (Simplify your answer Type an exact answer; using radicals as noeded: Use integers or fractions cos 20 = (Simplify your answer Type an exact answer; using radical...

-- 0.023513--