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Suppose you are hired to haul away the waste left over from place that develops film. It turns out the waste actually contains lor of silver nitrate' You deci...

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Suppose you are hired to haul away the waste left over from place that develops film. It turns out the waste actually contains lor of silver nitrate' You decide you will treat the waste with copper metal in order to recover the silver and cash in. The relevant equation is: AgNO; Cu Cu(NO;)1 2 Ag 169.89 glmol 63.55 glmol A stoichiometric calculation you need to work through for this type of scheme involves relat- ing how much copper it takes t0 react with a given amount of the silver nitrat

Suppose you are hired to haul away the waste left over from place that develops film. It turns out the waste actually contains lor of silver nitrate' You decide you will treat the waste with copper metal in order to recover the silver and cash in. The relevant equation is: AgNO; Cu Cu(NO;)1 2 Ag 169.89 glmol 63.55 glmol A stoichiometric calculation you need to work through for this type of scheme involves relat- ing how much copper it takes t0 react with a given amount of the silver nitrate_ You need the molar masses of the silver nitrate and the copper as shown above: You also need mol-to-mol ratio that relates the two different chemicals (silver nitrate and copper) . From the balanced equation we can see thar this ratio is mol Cu/2 mols AgNO;; Ifthe waste you have contains 100.0 grams of silver nitrate, how many mols of silver nitrate is this? (Use the molar mass of the silver nitrate from abovel ) If you found that your waste contained 0.5886 mols of silver nitrate how many mols of copper would you need to react with it? (Use the mol-to-mol ratio' mol Cu/2 mols AgNO;) If you found that you need 0.2943 mols of copper; how many grams of copper do you need? (Use the molar mass of copper from above! ) Note that the three conversions YOU just did above can be strung together as shown below: g AgNO; mols AgNO; mols Cu g Cu Imol AgNO; I mol Cu 63.55 g Cu 100.0 g AgNO,X 169.89 g AgNO; 2 mol AgNO; [ mol Cu



Answers

Chemistry of Copper Production "Native," or elemental, copper can be found in nature, but most copper is mined as oxide or sulfide minerals. Chalcopyrite (CuFeS $_{2}$ ) is one copper mineral that can be converted to elemental copper in a series of chemical steps. Reacting chalcopyrite with oxygen at high temperature produces a mixture of copper sulfide and iron oxide. The iron oxide is separated from CuS by reaction with sand. CuS is converted to $\mathrm{Cu}_{2} \mathrm{S},$ and the $\mathrm{Cu}_{2} \mathrm{S}$ is then burned in air to produce $\mathrm{Cu}$ and $\mathrm{SO}_{2}$ :(1) $2 \operatorname{CuFeS}_{2}(s)+3 \mathrm{O}_{2}(g) \rightarrow$ $2 \mathrm{CuS}(s)+2 \mathrm{FeO}(s)+2 \mathrm{SO}_{2}(g)$ (2) $\mathrm{FeO}(s)+\mathrm{SiO}_{2}(s) \rightarrow \mathrm{FeSiO}_{3}(s)$ (3) $2 \mathrm{CuS}(s) \rightarrow \mathrm{Cu}_{2} \mathrm{S}(s)+\frac{1}{8} \mathrm{S}_{8}(s)$ (4) $\mathrm{Cu}_{2} \mathrm{S}(s)+\mathrm{O}_{2}(g) \rightarrow 2 \mathrm{Cu}(s)+\mathrm{SO}_{2}(g)$ An average copper penny minted in the 1960 s has a mass of about $3.0 \mathrm{g}$ a. How much chalcopyrite had to be mined to produce one dollar's worth of pennies? b. How much chalcopyrite had to be mined to produce one dollar's worth of pennies if reaction 1 above had a percent yield of $85 \%$ and reactions $2,3,$ and 4 had percent yields of essentially $100 \%$ c. How much chalcopyrite had to be mined to produce one dollar's worth of pennies if each reaction involving copper proceeded with an $85 \%$ yield?

In the recovery of silver from silver chloride waste from Questions 79. A certain quantity of waste material is estimated to contain 184 g of silver chloride. The treatment tanks air charged with 45 g of zinc and 145 g of sodium cyanide. Is there enough of the two reactors to recover all of the silver from the silver chloride? If no how many grams of silver chloride will remain? If yes, how maney more grams of silver chloride could have been treated by the available zinc and sodium cyanide, we're told that we have 184 g of silver chloride. Let's convert this 2 g of silver Mueller masses 143 0.32 g for HP CEO in one more. Yeah, two moles of a gcl to two moles of silver. One mole of silver has a molar mass of 107 87 g on this would be equal to 138 g of silver. We're also told that we're starting from 145 g of sodium cyanide and 45 g of zinc. So let's convert both of these 2 g of silver 49.1 grabs of N a. C n in one more four moles of any CNN to two moles of silver in one mole of silver, 107.87 g. This would be equal to 159 g, a silver and zinc, 65.38 grams of zinc in one mole, one more low zinc to two moles of silver, one mole of silver, 107.87 g, and this would work out to 100 48 g of silver. Therefore, a gcl would be the limiting reactant as it produces the fewest amount of silver. So this would be limiting and because that is limiting mhm, um, the reactant since in a CNN yeah, and zinc are sufficient to recover all of the silver from the silver chloride. Since this is sufficient, we can now calculate how much silver chloride could be treated. So we're starting from, um so from both of these zinc would be limiting so far to reactions and a CNN zinc zinc is limiting Entei CNN's excess, so start with the excess because that will yield the most. So we're starting with 145 grams of n a c n. We want to figure out how much silver chloride could react completely with this. So this would be 49.1 g of any CN for one more four moles and a CNN 22 malls. The GCL one mole of a GCL has a mass of 143.4 g. Yeah, this would be equal to 212 grounds on silver chloride. So the additional amount of a gcl that it could be recovered is 212 g minus the, uh, initial amount, which is 384 g. And this would give us 28 g of a G C l. That uh huh, could be treated further. Aziz, we have access to treat further e gcl. So this is the additional amount here of gcl that could be recovered

So what we're looking for here is balancing equations where we have the same number and type of atoms on each side of the equation and the faster we have three see you at two and three at a H plus. That is an equilibrium with three. See you two Plus that two N o God for H two. Next. What we have is to see you two plus up to S C N at H s. Three h 20 has an equilibrium with to see U. S. C n hs four. Add to H plus. Next we have 10. See you plus to I owe 3 12 h plus 10. See you two plus Got make delivery tomorrow I two at six. H 20 in the next one. What we have, I too have to us. 2032 miners. That is an equilibrium with two i miners, but ask for six tu minus. Finally, what we have is to said on N H four p 04 at c n. That is an equilibrium with CNN P two 07 at H 20 and each three where we have two of those. So in the second part. The amount of copper there's not 0.42 g on percentage wise that it's 77.2% mama's off C N two p, 20734.6 The amount of sink There's not 0.1055 grounds on the Mass. 19.4%.

Now with a problem. 1 31. 30. You have to write equation, and then you do a So we have a say, benzene Rob Quist, Dry made or seven as I and they quit. Try meto Yeah, flock Dr Floor or made then so funny as it. Okay, three c s 03 edge. Okay. And also they react with sodium hydroxide. It's produced an Ellen. Yeah, Or do anything nitrogen and try meto Salou and dry floral Met or so for Nate and sodium Dr Flora met or so for night and then water. And now our job. You have to calculate the mass off Anne Lin, right? I 8% he go, Dr Mop reactor and then tie 100. So we have to calculate Moloch, Moscow and Ellen this reaction completely equal. Let me see that door right here. Right to yes, it equal. And then we have to calculate the mass off Anil in a modern mass and lean more the mask off all the the reaction. Then you do. The problem is a super equal. And Ellen, you have this. Go 93 boy. 13 Crap. Mass up. Benzene. We have 88 78. 11 Graham. And you got how? Maney Warm tomatoes, Yulin Night as I Okay. And you have There's a go 11 fly 11 fly boy Thio 11 g. Unless you have to tie this for must up gut Flora meto So funny. Has it this ego one? Okay. Five year old boy. 077 grand. Unless the last one he nitrogen a sodium hydroxide and they really tie 100. So we have I'm Yeah, yeah, yeah. Okay, is he goes 17 Boy 17 boy, 47%. Yeah. Now we do. For B be less, more or less composer we can do faster being where honey Lin a magazine Jack with nitric Isaac. And also get a present up hydrogen this MP three and we got honey Lynn and then water don't. So for this we got the same e I said people aren't even here. 93 boy, 13 crop divided for the total mass here. So we got it Bends in the same 78 11 grand and nitric classic equal 63. Boy one rum and water three type of 18 boy, hold sitting round. Yeah, yeah Mhm! And 5 100. So we have? Yeah. What? Yeah, about If I did, we get only one boy four 4%.

Mhm Okay. So let's just directly go to the questions. The first one is uh can you combine one or more foreign? Uh re agents to initiate chemical reaction that will inflate the balloon. So basically this question just asked us to find one reactions that can generate the gas. So what is that? We can actually find that zinc We react with the asset. Right? So for the question one or say we can probably use things react with nitric acid. But here be very careful when you use the nitric acid. It does not produce the hydrogen normally. Actually it is the it is a nitrogen element that was reduced by think it's normally actually would produce zinc nitrates which is common. But then they were also produced the nitrogen model oxide. If the nitric acid is diluted this is the gas face. Now we have to balance it. How we can balance it. We know for link to link nitrates, they actually lose two electrons. And for the nitrogen in the nitric gas to the uh huh nitrogen monoxide. This is a plus five And this is plus two. So actually you lose you actually gain three electrons which means we need to balance it. So, how we can balance it here actually, we need sweetie. I think uh probably it's better to just balance in the products part. So we need swinging. Yeah, mm hmm. And true nitrogen oxides. And you can say in this case there will totally be six plus two a nitrogen atom. So here it should be also ate And then it's three And now there will be four moist water. And that's how you balance the creation And it's actually pretty similar. The copper is also able to react with nitric acid and then produce the same. And the balanced process is very similar to think is since the copper nitrate is also two plus. So I will just not right down here. So either you can use copper or zinc to react with the nitric acid to produce the gas. And then asks what is the identity of the substance that inflates the balloon? So you can see it's actually the nitrogen on the oxide that flights inflates the balloon. And the question be he says what is the theoretical yield of the substance that fumes the balloon? So here we will stay we can say if you consume three more times with zinc you actually produce to moore's. I was a No. So this is a theoretical belt. And then the questions see can you combine two or more of the foregoing reactions to initiate a chemical reaction that will produce the metallic saver. So this is exchange reaction. Right So we know um reproducibility of the silver is stronger than the copper. And also Link which means that I think is a think or silver or copper is able to actually exchange the silver. So in this case link becomes link nitrates and then the silver and we can balance in this way then copper can do the same thing. Copper and sewer. um the same and they want to balance it. And then the question d what is the theoretical guild of the savor? Every time you consume one more of the zinc or copper you actually produce to moore's? It was a silver. And this is a theoretical yield, and this is the answer.


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