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Climate change and Tragedy of the Commons: a. In one paragraph,make an argument for why climate change (or one element – sea levelrise, warming temperatures,...

Question

Climate change and Tragedy of the Commons: a. In one paragraph,make an argument for why climate change (or one element – sea levelrise, warming temperatures, ocean acidification) is or is not anexample of a tragedy of the commons. Be sure to describe thespecific characteristics of this economic concept. b. Discuss theadvantages and disadvantages of using carbon taxes to solve thistragedy of the commons. Use at least two primary sources ofinformation about carbon taxes, and you may also choose

Climate change and Tragedy of the Commons: a. In one paragraph, make an argument for why climate change (or one element – sea level rise, warming temperatures, ocean acidification) is or is not an example of a tragedy of the commons. Be sure to describe the specific characteristics of this economic concept. b. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using carbon taxes to solve this tragedy of the commons. Use at least two primary sources of information about carbon taxes, and you may also choose to include historical or other examples of when taxes were used with or without success to solve a 'commons' problem.'



Answers

Explain the tragedy of the commons, as it relates to pollution.

So how has humans disrupted the carbon cycle, which is then cause of ocean acidification? So humans the past on a 203 100 year to really increase the amount of carbon that is in the atmosphere. Things like driving industry life's dark, etcetera. This carbon that's an atmosphere than foods, what moves unquote into the ocean. And from there the carbon dioxide that was in the atmosphere turns into carbonic acid, which then splits in the carbonate and bicarbonate. And these air iom's The carbonate bicarbonate is higher than when you have these ions. This is going to lead to an increase in ocean acidification, so carbon dioxide gets turned into carbon ions and ocean. And with these carbon ions, you have an increase in ocean acidification.

So how do we know that climate change is happening? And that's human induced? I think it's important thing about what science is and how scientists come up with knowledge and then what scientific support there is for climate change. In this chapter, they talked about Green House gases, but there's other scientific support that you go to and look at the evidence backing up the information that the scientists are giving us about climate change.

This question is asking how climate change could affect the carrying capacity of you, so we'll start by defining the carrying capacity. That's basically the maximum number of individuals that a certain environment can support. So it's usually denoted with Kay. So let's start with our initial, uh, ST, I guess before climate change, where, uh, kay is the same for both these species, the green and the blue species. So we expect these populations to grow exponentially until they reach their can capacity. They may have different our max or growth rates, but but we expect them to reach kind of same, um, similar levels of population or number over time. Uh, and now let's, uh, look at the scenario in response to climate. So, um, in our scenario, climate changes is likely to have two effects. One is gonna be global warming or increased temperature and increased temperature increases evaporation and reduces the availability of water or for plants. So, um, the net effect of increased temperature is is less water availability. Um, and the other thing that could happen with climate change is, uh, basically less predictable or less regular weather patterns. So so changes in patterns that could also reduce the frequency of of water. So in response to climate change, species that are drought tolerant or able to survive longer times or with less water are going to be favored. So in our example, the drought tolerant species. So we called the blue species. Here's drop tolerance they're carrying capacity, or K may increase because additional resource is on, environments are open to them now that there's higher temperatures and and changes in weather patterns that allow them to survive better but decrease the, uh carrying capacity or survival ability of this other species. So so our revised growth curves might look something more like this, Um, with a with a greater proportion of these this blue species species a persisting in the drop taller. So, um, this could simply be due to a larger land area that that's fertile for them. But it could also be due to competition. So say, for example, of if this species species be is consuming all the phosphorus in the soil. Um, that the presence of this species be may actually be limiting the, uh carrying capacity or K of species A. But then, when we get on here, and suddenly species be can't survive very well because the increased temperature and changing weather patterns. Suddenly there's more phosphorus available in the soil for species. I. So there's a lot of factors, um, that climate change shuffles up, and it can result in changes in the equilibrium. So so some species may not be adopted to this new environment, but some species may benefit from new environment or benefit from reduced competition from these other species that are not surviving as well. So, looking through our options, we see that option D eyes in line with this This explanation that plant species that air drought resistant would be able to thrive in these higher temperatures, whereas other species would decline because they're unable to adapt to these chains. So again, the correct answer, that question.

The question asks us to list three pieces of evidence that show that global warming is occurring. So I have a picture on the white board of a hurricane, and in recent years we have definitely seen an increase in both the number and the severity of hurricanes. And in our previous discussions, we've already talked about the connection between a warmer temperature and frequency of hurricanes and also the severity of hurricanes. There's a direct correlation there, so that is one piece of evidence that show that global warming is occurring. A second piece of evidence is something else that we've already discussed, and that is the loss of habitat of the polar bear. So we've seen this picture before, Cesar Polar bear sitting on this little piece of ice in the ocean. Warmer temperatures means more ice melting ice is melting faster earlier in the season and the polar bear's habitat shrinks. So that's the second piece of evidence. And then our third piece of evidence that global warming is occurring is from studies of the weather. Since we've been recording, um, our weather information. Over the last 120 years, there has been a steady increase in global temperature. So I have a picture here of a heat wave. We're seeing hotter temperatures. We're seeing the hot temperatures stick around longer and heat waves. So that would be the third piece of evidence. That or a third piece of evidence that global warming is occurring and there you have it.


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