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Suppose we used reagent-grade diethyl ether for our preparationof PhMgBr. The bottle of ether says, "contains ≤2% ethanol". If ithas 2% ethanol, wha...

Question

Suppose we used reagent-grade diethyl ether for our preparationof PhMgBr. The bottle of ether says, "contains ≤2% ethanol". If ithas 2% ethanol, what percentage of our Grignard reagent would bedestroyed by the ethanol in our 1 mL of ether? Show your work.

Suppose we used reagent-grade diethyl ether for our preparation of PhMgBr. The bottle of ether says, "contains ≤2% ethanol". If it has 2% ethanol, what percentage of our Grignard reagent would be destroyed by the ethanol in our 1 mL of ether? Show your work.



Answers

Diethyl ether is made from ethanol according to the following reaction: $2 \mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{5} \mathrm{OH}(\ell) \longrightarrow\left(\mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{5}\right)_{2} \mathrm{O}(\ell)+\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}(\ell)$ In an experiment, 517 g of ethanol gave 391 g of diethyl ether. What was the percent yield in this experiment?

So we're giving the reaction. Ah, we have different to ration. The first reaction is deceiving yourself, Doug. If our either. So we have two f new mock You going to react with each other to form my evil beaver show over here. And then also, there's a side reaction. They will be sure Ana reaction to the offender will undergo Ah, dehydration to form. Ah, after me. All right. So if we ah, have 50 grand Avenue to start with and they put your for your five point ah, nine Graham off fever, what would be the ah percentage you What will be the percentage you? So the percent it's you, its Sequels to our, um um the experimental. Or you can see the match experimental. Um, you all further for radical, real free, radical you. So it's the foetal. What would be the if one of your first single? Well, what we're there for vertical. You tires 100% and then we can find out. Ah, percentage. You Okay, so for this case Ah, let's go look at our equation for two. You know it will form one. Ah, either to f inal form one either. So We're going to cover the theoretical you first fee. Ready, Cole, you Is this so we know that the mood away show off. The reaction is to afternoon, too. One either ratio. So we should have to found the lumber Morse off afternoon. So I just e t o h s f no. So we have 50 Graham or effort? No, to start with. And the afternoon. Oh, ah, for Miller a see Ashley ch two away. So we have to find them on the mass. So, um so that's father. Will the mass first Super 16 1 It would be cause for six grand per mo. All right, Sylvia. 46 gram for mo so we can find on Bumble, so we'll be equals to 1.1 mole. Well, definitely. Okay, so we go back to our location again. We have to afternoon the motorway Shit between the after no and ive. There will be 2 to 1. You can say from the reaction equation. So we want to found Ah, Either the limbo more would you for reveals the 1.1 d y bites you because 2 to 1 ratio. So when from one day of by two. It would really couldn't see well, for 55 more. All right, so we have to convert that. Ah, assumed this reaction going to wonder if Assange complete. So is we have 7.55 more theoretical. So what would be the mass off? Ah, you for produce. So we are going Thio Mother plan our morning mass of fever with the number most so were sealed for 55 most times the lumber Moore's off fever. Okay, so that's coming here that I'm Baltimore UV B is a pretty big mark. You Ah, for one. Uh, actually, we have to Ah, afternoon, Come buying referred shoulder. But we have a water spinning nose and the process, so we know that, um, they're total on the mass Off Avenue is 46. So we just went. Bye bye. Forces buying to be way up to afternoon. Ah, educator. But these loose of water So minus 18 the water. So we know that we recently four grand for more form with a mass off that ether and everyone by by the humble most we should be able to find a 40.7 grandfather of theoretical. You All right. So the looks that we go back, we're going to plug our free radical you over here. So it's 44 41 7 So 40 plus if incorrect. So we have 35.9 d white by 40.7 time. 100%. It will be equals to 88 0.2 percent will be the percentage you. Okay, So, poppy, if 45% of the offender doesn't pull the receiver So what would be the Master Evan introduce? Because 45% off them assume for 5%. It doesn't put to use their either than they must go to the side reaction. So, um, we are going thio. Okay, What would be the weight off that afternoon first, So Ah, let's go back where? 45%. So we have 50 grand wealth afternoon to start riff. So your mother piper so points for five or 45%. So it will be 22.2. Ah, for 22.5 gram of avenue. Okay, so, um, we want you know, how many limbo more f inal from here. So it would be 22.5 year by 46. Ah, we will have several points for eight night. Most off. Ah, you know. Okay, so we go back to our side reactions. So for each after New Year, four years, one evidence. So it's 1 to 1 ratio. So the number of most off our ah ah ch to siege to we also you co CEO Seo Point for 89 most All right, so we just need to call Write that to the mass. So we just leave Thio, um, take our love almost mummified by the more than mass over time Some of the mass What would be the more than mass again? We can't just called me that. Ah, it will be equals to ah, 28. So a 28 grand for mole, Not just missing units a safe time. So you breathe 13 0.7 graham off our ch to say she'll produce if we have four or 5% f inal doesn't produce their evil on desert. The answer of poppy

We have here a mixture of ethanol and diable Either would combust in totally these in the amounts of the mixture and the total CEO T to produce. We're gonna look at the reaction separately. First thing we have to do is balance. And so this is the first combustion reaction with ethanol. And we have two carbons here, so we need to carbons here. And we have 3456 We need six side regions over here, so we need a three. And now we have 4567 oxygen's. So we need a seven. Has animal will leave that seven has cooperation. That's okay. And I'm going to let the mass, uh, as an all in the mixture be X. Okay. Next, let's go ahead and balance the second reaction. So same deal we have. Remember, this too applies to the whole groups. We have four carbons we need for seo twos, and we have 10 hydrogen, so we need five water. And now we have a, uh at five is 13. So we have 13 has oxygen, and I'm going to say now the mass of Dyas Elise. It's a total in the mixture. 1.5 minus the amount that is ethanol. Okay, so let's run from there. So molecular weight of as an all is 46 point 06 aid. And so our number of moles remember number of moles. Molecular Wade is mass divided by number of bulls for a number of moles is our mass and divided by 46.0 68 The story geometry the reaction says for CEO to We're going to get place that many rules my two moles for everyone. So the number of moles of co two this reaction is going to produce is going to be two times X divided by the 46 point oh, sexy. And the molecular weight of CO two is 44 point 01 and so are massive CEO to produce here is going to be massive molecular weight times in. So it's going to be that 40 for point 01 times the number of moles which is to at over 46 point bo 68 Now I'm gonna leave that and look at the second reaction and do much the same thing. So molecular weight of diethylene, sir IHS 74.12 and our number of moles is going to be the mass. Which year is 1.5 minus eggs divided by the 74 0.12 and now for our CEO to this time it's 4 to 1, so we need to multiply that number of rules by four. So our number of mole C 02 produced by this reaction is four times 1.5 minus eggs, all divided by 74.12 And again, our molecular weight is 44 0.1. So the the massive CO two produced in this reaction is going to be our molecular weight. 44.1 times are number of moles, which is for times 1.5 minus X, all divided by 74.12 But we were told how much co two we get total. We know we get a total of 1.963 grams of co two so we can just take this massive CEO, too, plus this massive CEO, too. And that equals air total. So let's do that. So now we have 44 points. 01 kinds two x all divided by 46 point six E waas. 44 0.1 times for times 1.5 minus X, all divided by 74.12 And that equals one point 963 grand, which is what we were told our total CEO to production. Now this looks a little bit messy, but it's really just an equation with 11 unknown, one variable. We can go ahead and make it a little bit pretty if we just do Cem both of flying through. So I'm gonna multiply 44 times two divided by 46. And that gives me one coin. 91 zero 65 on keeping lots of decimals of event rounding error plus now the same thing I need to do 44 times for all divided by 74. So that two point 37 507 and that's still all multiplied by 1.5 minus eggs. And that equals our 1.963 okay and carrying on now multiplying this suit after distributed through the brackets. So that's still are 1.910 65 That plus two point three mm six. Nine or minus. Now, this times the eggs is two point 37 507 X equals 1.963 Now, I'm just going to collect, like, terms, and I'm going to kind of conveniently popped. The X is over to the right that keeps and positive. So that works too. Zero point or two 394 equals zero point 47 6 to 9 times X where this guy just came from. From this the difference between that and that and this number that different mean this in this And this guy just the difference between these two. Okay, so that gives me just divided through now. X equals zero point 89 009 But remember, that was the mass of the ethanol. And now the mass of the ether is just 1.5 minus or 0.11 or 91 grams. Right, because that was 1.5 minus zero point 89 009 and then to get person, we just divide those by the total 1.5 and turn it to a person. And that gives us 88 0.6 person by weight, ethanol and 11 point for percent either

His questions is to outline steps and do to solve the following problem, either which was originally uses. Anaesthetic has been replaced by safer and more effective medications. It's prepared by the reaction of ethanol with sulfuric acid. And then it gives us the bounce chemical equation for this reaction and asks us what percent yield either is if a certain amount of certain densities reacted. Deformed, aromatic compound. And so here's the bounce chemical equation to give us and steps. We're gonna take our convert leaders of ethanol, two grams of ethanol, two moles of ethanol and then cover between most of ethanol a balls of either and finally grams of either. And then, from this calculator percent yield based on what it tells us, uh, the actual yield. Once let's begin. It tells us that we have 1.5 leaders of ethanol. Great this in mid leaders because dance is given to us a male leader. So 1.5 leaders 15 100 new leaders obliterate ethanol. E t arranged to see a little space. So that's this compound I'm reading as e Ohh! So that's only millions of e t. O h. We have it tells us that, um, the density of ethanol is 0.79 4 79 4 grams per mil. Leader of ethanol. It's okay. Just two grams of ethanol now Moles. One bowl of ethanol is about 46 grams. The next virgins to go from moles of ethanol. Two moles of either we can tell from the bounce come a whole equation For every two moles of methanol, there's more moola beat there. So every two moles that's no. There is one more of either. We meet that e t. And so this compound is being reviewed E. T. And the final conversion is too massive. Eat there. So one more eat there is equal to about 74 grams of either. Let's see if all of our units cancel milliliters. Beth Mom Milliliters of ethanol Grams, methanol, grams of ethanol. Mel's Ethanol moans Ethanol. Woolsey Fair knows either left with grams of either. The answer here is 950 two grams. Either percent, you theoretical. What we just calculated, given some about starting material, is 900 52 grams tells us the actual yield waas 1.17 leaders which is 1170 mil leaders that density 11700.771 34 and if you do this calculation, you would get 3% yield a 30.76 which is eaten seven 0.6%.

Ethanol and Benzie and dissolve and each other. What is the mass of the mixture made when 100 milliliters of ethanol is dissolved into 100 leaders of Benzie? So let's break this question down into two parts and first determine the massive ethanol and then the massive Benzie. So let's start with ethanol. Now let's remember that density is equal to mass over volume. And when we repurpose this equation, we get the mass cause we were. The volume here is equal to density times volume. Now the density of ethanol is equal to 0.785 grams percent in your cube. And this is also known as 0.785 grams per mil a liter because one middle leader is equal to one cubic centimeter, so we can easily make that conversion. We know that we have 100 milliliters of ethanol. So in order to get the mass of ethanol, we have the density 0.785 grams per milliliter times 100 milliliters of methanol. A good way to double check your work and make sure you're doing this properly is to make sure that that units cancel out and you end up with the correct units in this case because we want a mass, we wanna have Onley Grams left the middle leaders here cancel out and all we have left is our Graham. So we know that we're doing this correctly. So let's continue. When we multiply 100 5.785 we end up getting 78.5 grams of ethanol. Awesome. So that's the first part of our problem. Next, let's find the mass of benzene added So the density of benzene is equal to 0.880 grams per milliliter. Now our volume of benzene requires a little bit of changing because currently it's in leaders and we want to in milliliters because our density is an milliliters as well. So we know that in one leader there is 1000 milliliters. So we know that our volume is 1000 milliliters. Let's apply that to the equation in order to get the mass of Benzie. So we multiply 10000.880 grams per milliliter by the volume which we just found a milliliters which is 1000 milliliters. So our mass for benzene is 10000.80 times 1000 in which the middle leaders cancel out and we only have grams, so it's 880 grams of Benzie. Finally, we add the two resulting masses that we have so switched to a different color 880 grams and 78.5 grams of ethanol and Benzie and in order to get the total mass off the mixture. So the total is equal to 78.5 plus 880 which is equal to 958.5 grams total for the entire mixture. So our final answer for the resulting mass of the total mass of the mixture is 958 0.5 grams.


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