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I'm putting together a study guide of all of the quiz questionswe had for Ecology 3500K and I'm only missing the answer to 5 ofthem:1. Identify the biome ...

Question

I'm putting together a study guide of all of the quiz questionswe had for Ecology 3500K and I'm only missing the answer to 5 ofthem:1. Identify the biome in whichmuch of the primary production doesNOT come from vascular plantsa. desertb. temperate grasslandc. boreal forestd. tundra2. Identify the scenario inwhich competitive coexistence is most likely tooccur.a. K1/α = K2; K2/β = K1b. K1/α > K2; K2/β >K1c. K1/α < K2; K2/β <K13. Assume a consumer has a consumptioneffic

I'm putting together a study guide of all of the quiz questions we had for Ecology 3500K and I'm only missing the answer to 5 of them: 1. Identify the biome in which much of the primary production does NOT come from vascular plants a. desert b. temperate grassland c. boreal forest d. tundra 2. Identify the scenario in which competitive coexistence is most likely to occur. a. K1/α = K2; K2/β = K1 b. K1/α > K2; K2/β > K1 c. K1/α < K2; K2/β < K1 3. Assume a consumer has a consumption efficiency of 40%, an assimilation efficiency of 50%, and a production efficiency of 50%. Calculate the percent of NPP that is assimilated. a. 25% b. 20% c. 40% d. 90% e. 50% 4. Select the two types of organisms that can fix nitrogen. a. cyanobacteria b. fabaceous plants (legumes) c. rhizobial bacteria d. nitrifying bacteria 5. Use Figure 25.6 to identify the highest CO2 concentration in the last 800,000 years (before the present amount), and convert to percent. a. 50% b. 3% c. 300% d. 0.03%



Answers

A researcher has been studying a wildflower population growing in a large meadow. The researcher
counted individual plants and mapped their locations. Analysis of the data revealed that the wildflower has a uniform population distribution. This result prompts the researcher to ask a new scientific question to further refine his understanding of the ecology of this plant species. Construct a scientific question the researcher might ask that is directly prompted by his first set of findings.
a. When does this plant species flower and how does it attract pollinators?
b. Does this wildflower species have any adaptations that function to defend the plant against herbivores?
c. Which species of insects and/or birds are pollinators for this wildflower species?
d. Does this wildflower species secrete any chemical compounds that inhibit growth of others of its species?

So we can start this question by listing off the information given to us. Um, so first we know that there are two types of rabbits. We have white and brown rabbits. Um, second, we know that wolves are able to recognize rabbits that do not blend into their environment. Um, and third, we know that the current environment is changing in a way that reveals the brown rabbits to the wolves and sort of camouflages the white rabbits. So when does all this mean in terms of a little frequency? Well, we can look at this craft over here that relates on the X axis the amount of snow coverage to the proportion of the population of rabbits that the white and brown roberts make up. Um, so you can see that as the ground becomes covered in snow, the wolves are able to find the white rabbits less frequently, Um, and the brown rabbits more frequently, meaning that the bulls are eating of brown rabbits much more than the white rabbits in this snow covered environment. So if you look over here at this point in the graph, we see that the white rabbits are much more abundant. than the brown rabbits. Uh, and this means that the white only low frequency is increasing. So the answer to this question would be a

Okay. So today we will be talking about why the different levels or concentrations of gas is at, you know, different desk depths in the ocean. Okay, so particularly the two gas is of concern are oxygen 02 and carbon dioxide co two. Okay, so a Z could tell I made a graph. Hi. I like to do visual type of learning s. Oh, here we go. So, at the top of this graph, I made a blue line representing the surface of the ocean. Okay. And at the surface of the ocean was look at co two levels and how they change as we go down deeper into the ocean. So starting off at the surface, co two levels are at its lowest. If we go down to the bread axes, which is also for co two is for the scales for co two, um, co two starts out at its lowest, which is 90 parts per million. Okay, um, so let's go back up to the surface and let's scuba dive down down deeper into the ocean. We come around here to back to the red access and it is around, I don't know, maybe 108 parts per million. And so, from surface to, you know, deeper into the ocean, the concentration of seal to goes up. Okay, so I like to write things out. As you know, you go down as you go down into the ocean. So down into the ocean, scuba diving. Okay. What happens? Like we just said for co two, what happens is that co two concentrations go up, and we will explain why that iss I just wanted to How kind of guide. Everybody, um you know how to read the graph and all that start to finish type of thing. Okay. Now we need to look at oxygen levels oxygen starting at the surface of the ocean at the blue line, where it's a 0 m death, we look, and at the surface, oxidants starts at a 7.5 parts per million. And as we scuba dive down into deeper parts of the ocean, oxygen is now at a 1.5 parts per million, which means from surface to deeper ocean, we go from 7.5 to 1.5. Which means that oxygen concentrations as we descend deeper into the ocean Well, uh, oxygen levels decrease. So as you go deeper into the ocean, we lose oxygen. Oxygen is not as prevalent as the surface. Okay? Why is that? So now we're explained. Why not that we see the trend. Now we're gonna explain. Well, why is that? What's going on in the ocean that is causing this, you know, changing concentrations of gas. Okay, so at thes sunlit layer, which I'm going to write as s for sun l for lit l for layer, sunlit layer so sunlit layer I have denoted with the dash line. Okay, this is the sunlit layer. And in the sunlit layer is where the's beams of rays of sun What the's black squiggly marks indicate sun comes down into the ocean. You know, these beams of sun traveled, you know, through the water and in the sunlit layer of the ocean. You know, we have phytoplankton. We have like seaweed, and we have photosynthetic plants and organisms. So in the sunlit layer, with all these photos with photosynthesis occurring in with these photosynthetic organisms, we have photosynthesis occurring like I just said, eso photosynthesis consists of what? Well, if you remember to do photosynthesis carbon dioxide is needed. Um, plus plus what? We just said it the sun. Okay. They need that lights and which will in turn turn into oxygen. They produce oxygen and all the oxygen being produced. Kids put into the water because the plants don't want it, they don't need it. So the water, the water's oxygen concentration goes up and the waters carbon dioxide concentration will go down because the plants are taking it in and the phytoplankton are taking it in, taking it out of the water into their cells, coupled with some sunlight. Okay, and they produce oxygen, says I don't want it. Here you go. Now it's in the water, which is great. It's great for other living organisms. Okay, so that's why that's why at the surface of the ocean in the sun, like I said in the sunlit layer, CO two is gonna be less. It's it's getting used up. 02 is going to be at its most. As you could see, the graph 02 is at its most okay. C 02 is at its least all right because of the photosynthetic organisms now passed the sunlit layer on what's going to call this deep deeper than the sunlit layer you can see in the graph that they start to the two lines. We'll start to go towards one another and crisscross and then go into the opposite direction of what they started. So oh, two starts high, crisscross. Now it's low co two starts high, crisscross. Uh, And when co two starts Lowe. Sorry. So to start slow at 90 Crisscross and higher than when it started. All right, why is that? Well, when we don't have photosynthesis going on because we're no longer in the sunlit layer. Um, other organisms that don't do photosynthesis. Rather they do aerobic respiration. They What do they do? Well, they will take like us. They will take oxygen. Okay. Like oxygen, fish. How? User Gilles To obtain oxygen. Okay, Plus well, we don't use sun. Those organisms don't use son, but they do You They do need some type of food. That's their energy source, some type of food. Whatever that food is, they will couple. It's with some oxygen. And what do they produce as a waste product? Well, you guessed it. It iss seek out to carbon dioxide. They don't want that stuff just like we don't want that stuff in our bodies. So they spit it out into the water. Great. So since these organisms that are not photosynthetic at all, they take whatever oxygen is in the ocean, they take it out of the water into their bodies. So that's why oxygen is going down as we go deeper past that sunlit layer. Okay? And as a result, after eating so food, all that good stuff, now they're saying, I don't want this co two. It's not good for my body. I'm gonna spit it out into the water that is aerobic respiration. So that's why CO two increases because, you know, you have more sea life that does aerobic respiration, more organisms that air spitting out the CO two. I don't want it. It's not good for me. Here you go. I'll take that oxygen, though, So that's why oxygen gal's oxygen concentration of the ocean will go to, um, because all the organisms past the sunlit layer they're using at all. So oxygen starts high, go deeper. Many, many organisms, many money organisms using it, using it, using it, it goes, it just keeps dropping. With the co two uh, there's no photosynthetic organisms past the sunlight layer. So many organisms air saying as they're using up all this 02 the spitting out CO two, spitting it out, spitting it out, spinning out. No photosynthetic organisms, removing it from the water so it just accumulates more and more organism. Spit it out. They don't need it more and more organisms spit it out. One more organisms e use of oxygen, More organisms Spit out that co two and so increases as you go deeper into the ocean. All right, I hope that was good enough and not too long.

Okay, you guys, here we will be talking about why we have, uh, different concentrations of gas. Um, at different meters of death in the ocean. So here on our why access. We have meters, uh, in depth in the ocean and on the excess. We have parts per million. Uh, concentration of these two gasses. The red Ex access is for carbon dioxide and the green X accesses for oxygen. Uh, concentration scale. So here. I'm going to draw. Um, just a water line. This is thesis AFIS of the water. Okay. And at the surface of the water, we have oxygen concentrations are, Let's see, if we go down, we have It's about 7.5 parts per million. Okay. And that is that the surface of the ocean or of the water? Now, if we were scuba divers, we would go deeper and deeper and deeper to the ocean and school, would I? And a deeper that we go, uh, in the depth of the ocean. We end up around 1.5 parts per million. So from the surface to deeper ocean, we go down from 7.5 parts per million to 1.5 parts per million. So the same This, um, if we go down, if we go down in the ocean, then that means our oxygen levels. We'll also go down. Okay. Uh, now, if you look at carbon dioxide, we start at the very surface, Uh, the seawater 0 m and depth. And if we look, that's around 90 parts per million carbon dioxide. Okay. And if we were scuba divers, we would descend deeper into the ocean. 501,000, 2000 m and depth. And that will place us around between 106. 110 parts per million. Okay, so we start off in the ocean at 90. The deeper we go, we end up around maybe 108 parts per million. So the deeper in the ocean that we go okay again, the deeper in the ocean that we go when it comes to carbon dioxide, the our concentration goes up. Now, why is that? Well, if we look here at the very surface of the water Okay, let's say I'm gonna use blue again. Let's say there we go. You look here at the surface of the water. Okay? We have. I'm gonna job. He's just little shapes of green to represent, um, are photosynthetic organisms now? It could be plants. Such a seaweed. It could be phytoplankton. They all do what is called photosynthesis. Okay. And this area of the ocean where son see our sun rays, where the sun reaches the water and the water absorbs the sunlight raised. This is called the sunlit layer. Okay. And I'm gonna call. That s l l. This is called the sun lit layer. And and the sunlit layer Uh huh, is where sun rays are absorbed into the water. So when the sun rays are absorbed into the water, thes photosynthetic organisms are absorbing. Those son might raise to do their metabolic activities. Okay, so all these, uh, photos, synthetic organisms? Um, they will take I'll use green. Okay, They will take right now. Okay. They will take carbon dioxide. Not one. They will take carbon dioxide. Okay. Plus mhm the sun light the sunlight, right. A an They will produce mhm and expel. Yeah, oxygen. Just like plants are on dry land. They do the same thing and the water also, they take the carbon dioxide from the water this carbon dioxide in the water. They will take that carbon dioxide out of the water, making the seal too. Levels or concentration lower. Pair that with the sunlight and they give off oxygen. They put oxygen into the water, which makes our 02 levels higher were concentration higher. And that makes sense because here we have our lowest concentration. At the surface, we have our lowest concentration off carbon dioxide, but also at the surface we have our highest concentration of oxygen, so this makes sense below the sunlit layer. We do not have organisms that do photosynthesis because our were sunlight rays. It's about travel that far down deep into the water. So without these organisms doing photosynthesis like I have shown right here, decrease in carbon dioxide and releasing or increasing 02 in the water, there's a switch in the levels as you go down deeper levels of for concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen. Okay, so as we go down deeper as we go down deeper, put it right here. We don't have photosynthesis happening anymore, and that means all these other organisms, such as fish and other aquatic life, they don't do photosynthesis rather they do aerobic respiration, which means they will consume oxygen. Okay, they consume oxygen. And let's call it just food. Because everybody needs that nutrition for metabolic capabilities. Take oxygen and food and we expel out carbon dioxide fish get oxygen through their gills. You know, small amounts. They still need it. So all these fish and other aquatic life that are not performing photosynthesis. They consume oxygen, so oxygen in the water goes down. Okay, Since there's so many animals in the ocean, they keep consuming it and consuming it, consuming it. And the farther deep down you go, you have more and more Quantico life, and they consume it even more. Um uh huh. And then so and turns a carbon dioxide. Since they're consuming all this oxygen, they release carbon dioxide into the water. Okay, this carbon dioxide, there is no photosynthesis happening. So there is nothing taking carbon dioxide out of the water. Once you're below that sunlit layer, Therefore, carbon dioxide is going to increase and accumulate all these animals. Aquatic life is excreting carbon dioxide into the water. And that is why we have varying levels of gas is a different depths of the ocean on the sunlit layer, you have decreased carbon dioxide, increased oxygen due to photosynthesis being performed by organisms such as final plankton, seaweed, other plants, other Clinton and you go below that sunlit layer. You don't have photosynthesis anymore. And so I reverse happened to reverse happens where you see the switch and carbon dioxide is now going higher. Oxygen, which started out high in the sunlit later, now becomes lower.

So in this question, were asked about the technique that's used for gathering data. So I asked whether it was just an observational study or an experiment. So in part A, we're told that there were 774 fish and we're told the number off each type of fish. So all the study is doing is just observation. It's just observing the types of official. This is, um, observational study Part B. We're told that there was 41 sheep and the sheep were given an injection to prevent hard work, and we were told that a year later, 38 did not have hard form all the other three. So this is not just an observational study off the ship. This is actually an experiment where the sheep were injected and the results were studied. So this is an experiment in Part C. We're told that drought under 15 inches were studied, so there was a study of trout before and after a regulation, and it was found that the length off the trout increased. So we see that there's there's some factors here is not just a na observational. It's actually an experiment that studies trout before and after regulation. So this is an experiment party. We're told that there were 23 turtles out of which 18 were box and five or snapping. So this is just simply an observational study. So here are the answers to the questions.


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