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In biology, vector lisease-carrying organism_ sucn as mosquito or bat, that itself not infected with the disease. One such diseaser west Nile Virus;, primarily bv m...

Question

In biology, vector lisease-carrying organism_ sucn as mosquito or bat, that itself not infected with the disease. One such diseaser west Nile Virus;, primarily bv migratory birds. The figure below shows the spread the vinus across the continental United States trom 1999 to 2004.spreadMinneapolis 2U2New Fork 1999550 miM miSn Diego 2004100 miMam ZuuIWest Nile Virus was first detected New York in 1999_ Two years later; the virus had spread to Miami, distance of 1,100 miles at direction of 00"

In biology, vector lisease-carrying organism_ sucn as mosquito or bat, that itself not infected with the disease. One such diseaser west Nile Virus;, primarily bv migratory birds. The figure below shows the spread the vinus across the continental United States trom 1999 to 2004. spread Minneapolis 2U2 New Fork 1999 550 mi M mi Sn Diego 2004 100 mi Mam ZuuI West Nile Virus was first detected New York in 1999_ Two years later; the virus had spread to Miami, distance of 1,100 miles at direction of 00" west of south from New York: In 2002, the virus was tound Minneapolis ,500 miles at direction 37.02 west of north from Miami, Finally; the virus arrived San Diego in 2004_ distance of 1,550 miles at direction 25.00 south of west: (a) What is the net displacement (in mi} of the virus from 1999 to 20047 (Give the direction in degrees south of west, rounded to at least three significant figures ) magnitude 3983 Draw diagram of the vectors and check the anglc each makes with the coordinatc axes What are the components of cach vector? mi direction south of west What the average speed (in mi/h) of the spread of the virus from New York to San Diego during this time? milh



Answers

West Nile virus kills birds of many species and can cause fatal encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in humans and horses. The virus was first isolated in Africa (where it is thought to be endemic) in the 1930 s, and by the 1990 s it had been found throughout much of Eurasia. West Nile virus was not found in North America until 1999 (when it was first detected in New York), but since that time it has spread rapidly across most of the United States. Use the phylogenetic tree of West Nile virus isolates shown below to construct a hypothesis about the origin of the virus lineage that was introduced into the United States. The isolates are identified by their place and date of isolation.

So in this problem will be constructing a hypothesis and hypothesis. We always start with if and if then format. If we look at the tree, we have the New York one. In 1999 Israel 1989 our most close related. And then the next common one will be Central African Republic in 1989. Now we see that these two are most closely related. So weaken hypothesize that if the new New York outbreak in 1999 is caused, I transit of the fires from Israel, then the follow genetic tree would Uh huh them he most closely related, which we do see here, having a common ancestor and being the most close related. Compared to, let's say, Israel in Central Africa, which would be related, but not quite as closely at this company ancestor. Right here. Okay?

The West Nile virus emerging Africa in the 19 thirties, which we can see here. That virus then was introduced into Asia and Europe. We can sleep on a different dates that it was possibly brought on multiple times. The strain in the United States is most closely related to the strain, which was isolated in Israel. A reasonable hypothesis is that the strain was brought over to New York in the late 19 nineties by mosquitoes brought over in airplanes or shipments. Once in the United States, the virus could have been more quickly spread by the bird populations.

Today we'll be using this biogenetic tree of the West Nile virus isolates The West Nile virus emerged in Africa in the 19 thirties, which we could see here. The virus then was introduced into Asia and Europe. We can tell about the different dates that it was possibly brought up multiple times, for example, these different dates here. The string in the United States appears to be most closely related to the strain which was isolated in Israel. We can tell by this point here. A reasonable hypothesis is that a strain of the virus was transported over to New York in the late 19 nineties by mosquitoes brought over in airplanes or shipments from Israel. We know that the virus is most commonly spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito, and the mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds. With this reasoning, it is most likely that the virus spread throughout the United States quickly through the native bird populations

In this question. We're looking at a mystery virus outbreak of human encephalitis, and what we have to work with is we have a bunch of genetic samples from some dead human patients. Mosquitoes are dead horse and some birds. And our first question is, did all of these creatures die of the same disease? Well, if we have a look at our class diagram, we can see that all the samples were very closely related to each other, much closer than their related to any of the virus. And they are more closely related to a Western al variants of the Israeli variants. But that is really very physical Romanian various. So we can we can definitely say, Um, yes, we will died of some disease and this leads into B. And did they die of the ST Louis encephalitis virus, which was the initial her suggestion for the course. But looking at this, we can see it is most closely related to the West Nile virus, specifically an Israeli sample. And in this clever Graham, it is within the West Nile virus group. Um, so we're gonna say it's not setting the way encephalitis. It's most likely or smell virus. And finally, for C Can we see how the disease is spread from this program? Um, if we have look at our samples, they are all on the same little branch. There are no further branches off to show closer or further genetic relations between samples. All we have is that all these samples closely related. We don't have anything more than that. We don't know if any two samples closer related. Uh, so we cannot comment on the spread. If hypothetically, um, the horse was in its own hole, played with humans, we could say that it spreads from horse to human vice versa. But I'm saying there's very no further branches, so we cannot make any comments on which creature gave the virus to any of the others.


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