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Research the boiling points for the zix liquids: List them (with their boiling points) in terms of increasing boiling point. Lowest BP Highest BPResearch the vapour...

Question

Research the boiling points for the zix liquids: List them (with their boiling points) in terms of increasing boiling point. Lowest BP Highest BPResearch the vapour pressures for the slx Ilqulds at 20*€ Ust them (with their vapour pressures) In terms of Increasing vapour pressure, Lowest VP Hichest VP

Research the boiling points for the zix liquids: List them (with their boiling points) in terms of increasing boiling point. Lowest BP Highest BP Research the vapour pressures for the slx Ilqulds at 20*€ Ust them (with their vapour pressures) In terms of Increasing vapour pressure, Lowest VP Hichest VP



Answers

The temperatures at which the vapor pressures of the following liquids are all 100 torr are given. Predict the order of increasing boiling points of the liquids: butane, $\mathrm{C}_{4} \mathrm{H}_{10},-44.2^{\circ} \mathrm{C} ; 1$ -butanol, $\mathrm{C}_{4} \mathrm{H}_{10} \mathrm{O}, 70.1^{\circ} \mathrm{C} ;$ diethyl ether, $\mathrm{C}_{4} \mathrm{H}_{10} \mathrm{O},-11.5^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$

So let's talk about how you would answer this question. So we have you detain you saw and die, especially, sir. So, we have the vapor pressures of these substances. So we know that butane is going to have the weakest inter molecular forces because as you can see from the structure, this is non polar. Also, although diet Louisa is also non polar, the molecular weight for dial. So either is going to be higher than that of beauty. That means that it's going up stronger Vander wal's horses, making it have a higher boiling point and also a lower vapor pressure compared to let's compare that two yourself. So yeah, usual has an old Bonnie to age. So when we see this group, the highly electron negative oxygen pulls the electron density towards it, causing there to be a positive diaper near the hydrogen and the negative diplomacy with the auction. So this diaper is very strong and therefore the forces of attraction between the positive the negative end of neighbouring molecules will cause the molecules to exhibit hydrogen bonding, which are the strongest type of It's good for us. So the harder it is to pull the molecules apart, the higher the boiling point will be, and the lower the vapor pressure will be. So in general, if the vapor pressure is lower, the inter molecular forces are stronger because it is harder to get. He lived in molecules to enter the gas phase because they have strong force of attraction to one another. If the vapor pressure is lower the boiling point goes up. That is because if the molecules are harder to get into the gas phase, we have to put in more energy. You're raising the temperature in order to get the molecules to enter the gas base. So that's why the progression point point are.

Here we are considering the vapor pressure. So this depends on the temperature well and the boiling point depends on the external pressure. So we can think of vapor pressure as a sort of force that a liquid exerts on the environment that is trying to escape into the gas phase. So the higher the vapor pressure, the higher the force so the compound with the highest vapor pressure. What we see is that this compound is pressing into the gas phase and so we can order the compounds from the lowest boiling point to the highest. Well we have C. S. Two with 46.3 degrees C. Acetone, 56° C. And ethanol. This is 78.4° C. Mhm. Yeah.

So in this problem, you want to read these three structures in terms of boiling point and you want to actually rate them in terms of increasing boiling point. So Loeb boiling point to high boiling point. So remember that when you're talking about boiling point, the higher boiling point is going to have a stronger hydrogen bonding interaction with itself. And the stronger hydrogen bond interaction is due to a more polar, I'll call this X each bond. So in this let's kind of look at the difference in polarity or the difference in electric negativity of each of these bonds. So for our beauty team, we have a carbon hydrogen. For our proposal, we have oxygen which is going to form a hydrogen bond with hydrogen and then our nitrogen into carbon doesn't really form hydrogen bonds. But if you were to calculate the difference in electro negativity, You would do 2.5 -2.1 to get a difference of 0.4. In terms of oxygen has an electro negativity of 3.5 minus the electric negativity of hydrogen, which is 2.1 and you get 1.4, if you look at nitrogen has an electric negativity of 3.0 -2.1. And this would give you a difference of 0.9. So, as I mentioned, something that has a higher boiling point is going to have a stronger hydrogen bond and a more polar bond. So a greater difference in electoral negativity. So of these, the ones sorry, the structure with, that's the most polar and this is going to have the highest boiling point is our proposal. And then our beauty in is going to have our lowest boiling point. So for ranking these in terms of increasing in boiling point, we would start, you're then we would have our nitrogen are mean then we would have our alcohol. And the question also lists the boiling point of each of these structures. So now we can kind of match these boiling points. So This should have a three here. So the boiling points of these structures is negative 0.5 7.2 And 77.8°..

Vapor pressure and have boiling point in vapor pressure or both related to the inter molecular forces holding the molecules together. So when you have strong intra molecular forces, that means that you'll have, ah, high boiling point and a low vapor pressure because it'll take a lot of energy to break those bonds so you won't have very many molecules in the vapor paid in the vapor phase. When there's liquid there, so of the molecules, give him butane has the lowest paper brush has the lowest boiling point, so that means that it will have, uh, the weakest inter molecular forces and most the highest paper pressure. Meanwhile, tell Ewing as the highest boiling point, which means that it will have the strongest intra molecular forces, which means that it will have the lowest leave for pressure at that temperature.


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