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1) Give four different examples of reasons that sexualreproduction is costly in terms of energy and resources. 2) Explain how sexual reproduction provides a fitness...

Question

1) Give four different examples of reasons that sexualreproduction is costly in terms of energy and resources. 2) Explain how sexual reproduction provides a fitness benefit overasexual reproduction in an environment that changes over time. Youranswer should make it clear that you know what fitness is. This isasking about the fitness of the individual reproducing.3) Explain how sexual reproduction provides a fitness benefit overasexual reproduction in regards to combatting parasites and/orpathoge

1) Give four different examples of reasons that sexual reproduction is costly in terms of energy and resources. 2) Explain how sexual reproduction provides a fitness benefit over asexual reproduction in an environment that changes over time. Your answer should make it clear that you know what fitness is. This is asking about the fitness of the individual reproducing. 3) Explain how sexual reproduction provides a fitness benefit over asexual reproduction in regards to combatting parasites and/or pathogens. Your answer should include an explanation of why parasite/pathogen populations evolve more quickly than their host populations, and why sexual reproduction allows host populations to defend against the parasite/pathogen populations in spite of this.



Answers

What is the advantage of sexual reproduction?
a. Sexual reproduction allows animals to conserve resources and reproduce only during optimal conditions.
b. Sexual reproduction results in offspring with diverse phenotypes, which may enhance survival of a population in a changing environment.
c. Sexual reproduction guarantees that both parents will provide parental care.
d. Sexual reproduction yields more numerous offspring more rapidly than is possible with asexual reproduction.

So the question is asking why sexual reproduction might be beneficial to a population. Um, but to an individual, I sexual reproduction might be disadvantageous. Um, so to kind of illustrate this point, I thought, uh, take us through a sample population. Um, that has advantageous traits, this advantageous traits and neutral traits. Given the environment, um, so looking at the population as a whole variation is advantageous. Um, if it increases the fitness of the individual allowing them to survive and reproduce more compared to other individuals, um so the advantageous. So individuals with advantageous traits in this generation are more likely to reproduce compared to individuals with mutual or disadvantages. Treats. Um, so they will produce more offspring in the next generation than those with mutual or dis advantageous streets. And it's kind of this cycle that continues throughout the population as a whole, where individuals with the advantageous street, which confers them a greater fitness, um, will be more likely to reproduce until eventually. The population, um, is primarily these individuals with the advantages Street. Um, and this is how sexual reproduction is beneficial to the population because, um, all this variation comes from operation from sexual reproduction. Um, but how might sexual reproduction be? Um, this advantages to an individual? Um, se An individual was born, um, with a dis advantageous variant. Say, for example, um, this individual. See, for example, this individual was born with a disadvantageous trait. Um, as you can see in the next generation, this individual was not able to reproduce, um, or and did not survive or did not survive to reproduce eso for this individual. This this advantageous trait this is this advantageous trait came from reproduction came from sexual reproduction production and reduced its witness. And it is these variants which reduce the fitness of an individual which proved ultimately this advantageous to the individual.

Here in the question, we're going to compare sexual and the sexual reproduction And which reproduction gives us two more viable variations. So whether sexual ary sexual reproduction gives rise to more viable variation. So first, let's talk about a sexual reproduction in a sexual reproduction, there are only minimum changes in the DNA because DNA copy pass on to the progeny. So our springs by such a reflection, like the DNA are quite similar between the parent to the offspring. So evolution descent that evolution happens uh one million sexually production than in a sexual reproduction. Now let's discuss about the sexual reproduction. So sexual reproduction gives rise to more viable variation for the following reasons. So number one, let's see number one. This errors are cutting when copying DNA. So there might be errors occurring or happening in coping D. N. A. That are not very significant. They don't produce much changes in the offspring, but they do errors. But it has to happen in copying the DNA. And since in sexual reproduction, paternal and maternal chromosomes come into play, maternal and paternal chromosomes are segregated randomly during the gamete formation. Okay. And this is the second point that men and material chromosomes. They say you get your hands on me and number three years exchange of genetic materials happens between homologous chromosomes during the formation of gametes. So during gamete formation, there is exchange of genetic material. Oh, and discussing about the 4th point, it creates a why diversity? So since then there's a sexual reproduction. So maternal and paternal chromosome common to play and errors do happen. And there is an extensive genetic materials. So they have wider diversity. So sexually production creates diversity and discussing the fifth point variation is accumulated and sexual reproduction over generation after generation and selection. So this is a 50 point. So these are the following reasons uh, that are sexual reproduction gives rise to more viable variation than is actually production. Thank you.

So the question asks the evolutionary advantage of sexual reproduction over a sexual reproduction. And, um, it list a couple of options as to what could be the answer. The first is that sexual reproduction has your steps. The second is that, um, there's a lower chance of using resources in the environment in sexual reproduction. The third is that sexual reproduction produces variation. And the fourth is that sexual reproduction is cost effective. So I have to the right this kind of diagram showing the phases of my oh, sis versus the faces of my toe, sis. And you can see that my oasis has minus this one and my uses to which has, um, cumulatively between the two of them, more steps than my toe sis. So sexual reproduction has, in fact, more steps than a sexual reproduction. Um, also because it has more steps. Um, this cost the organism mawr energy. Um, and so sexual reproduction is not cost effective. Um, and recall the natural selection is the differential survival. Um, um differential, survival and reproductive success of individuals in a population, um, due to variation inheritable trait, um, given the environment and the variation, which is selected upon it created in sexual reproduction due to the re combination of the non sister competence, um, which occurs in pro phase one. So the combination creates variation. And this is the answer of that question. Um, the advantage of sexual reproduction is that it produces very issued.

So we're going to compare a sexual and sexual reproduction. If you have a population of sexually reproducing organisms, what's advantage they have over a sexually refusing organisms. So the real issue here is in variation. Sexual reproduction creates genetically unique spring was a sexual reproduction produce clothes. So if you have variation in your offspring, you may have some very successful offspring and some very unsuccessful. But if your environment is changing, you have a good chance of adapting to it. You have a foster rates of adoption in your sexually reproducing organisms. Finally, we also have the arrest queen hypothesis. That's his viruses. Parasites are also evolving, and you have to keep up with them in an arms race. If you refuse a sexually and you aren't changing with each generation, ASUs fast a sexually reproducing organism, You may fall behind in this race and be overly affected by parasites, which will increase. You're sexually reproducing cousins, chancy fitness rounds. It's yours


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