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Explain Bateman’s principle. Does it predict that sexualselection will act more strongly on males or females? Why?...

Question

Explain Bateman’s principle. Does it predict that sexualselection will act more strongly on males or females? Why?

Explain Bateman’s principle. Does it predict that sexual selection will act more strongly on males or females? Why?



Answers

Why does sexual selection often lead to sexual dimorphism?

So for this question and asks us to explain how sexual selection on Ruggeri sexual time dwarfism So sexual selection is when basically a female or l will choose their mates based on some kind of picture. But that, um, potential mate has so a I drew two birds, so this would be the female, and this is the mail. ANZUS common and a lot of birds have really colorful males and really not colorful females, because the females see the colorful less of the males as a sign of fitness. And so they will choose to make with the most colorful males that they can find incense. A small number of males can boost your per night an infant number of females. It's very competitive and very important for these birds to be colorful. And so it also means that if there are, you know, a handful of colorful birds, they convey with all the females and pass on those probably colorful treats, whereas the bland male birds don't necessarily have to meet with anyone and may not really pass on their trades very much. So. This basically shows how if he knows we're looking for a really colorful mate. Then those males were gonna stay really colorful. Where's that? Females are gonna stay really bland and boring. So it's basically a sign of fitness, both in the eyes of the bird and and reality onto you were colorful. So passing on the colorful jeans Mom increases the fitness of those offspring and basically enhances this sexual die amorphous, um, or very different peanuts of the treats of the female in the mail. Because where the females are looking for bright, colorful males and they're passing all those traits, Teoh create brand colorful males and not pressing on the boring color male genes. So basically, they're kind of in this little where the funeral choose is something that, by choosing that different shades them further from the opposite sex.

You know is that large, extravagant tail and the pea hen does not. So that's an example of sexual dynamo autism. We get sexual, they morph. Is it in two ways, right. You can have it in interest. Sexual selection. Remember, intra means within so interest. Sexual selection means selection within one gender. And in practice, this is most frequently in the form of male combat. Now, it doesn't mean the males necessary actually beat each other up. But it does mean they often will display for each other. We're parade around and trying to intimidate the other males. And so this Kenly lead to sexual day Marxism, right? Because traits that helped male succeed ah, in this male combat, um, will often be once that change their appearance. Right, So this could lead to die marshes. Um, and an example of this would be sigh. So, for example, elephant seals often, um, bang each other around as they try to establish territories for harems and so for exit. And it helps to be a larger in that battle. And so a wheels that help males grow larger would be favored In that situation. You can also have sexual doing dwarfism inter sexual selection and enter, of course, means between. So this is sexual section that occurs between the genders and in practice. It's often simply female choice. So females choose mails that they find attractive in one way or another. And often this means traits that males have that are particularly colorful, for example, or showy. And so both of these will lead toe to, in this case, males looking quite different. So you have day morph ism in two different ways. Um, the other question that this on this one is why is one gender choosier than the other? And again, this is typically, but not always the case that females air choose here. And the short version of this is that females air choosier, uh, because they have more to lose if they make a bad decision about mating. So females are choose here typically, and right females invest more in reproduction. And so if they make a bad choice and the fellow they meet with is ah, the dud, right then they may lose that entire investment, or at least much of that investment, so that the bad choice has big consequences. So, again, whichever gender invest more in reproduction should be the choosier gender and other certainly exceptions. This in the book discusses some of them remember that in most cases it's females in most groups of organisms to invest. More males, of course, tend to be show here, and this is usually example of inter sexual selection or a few militaries. Um, and in this case, the males air show here because, ah, females were choosing traits that they find particularly attractive in the males. And, ah, over time, of course, choose email the show emails get chosen, they father offspring of the males and those offspring will inherit those illegals. And so they will be showing. And so the males. And to be sure, and this is due to female choices. So that's it. Quick. These air both actually really sort of questions with really long answers. But those were the quick, quick version of the answers

We have to think about two of the organisms described in the chapter. One is marine iguanas in the Galapagos Islands and in ah, iguanas. The males are much bigger than the females, and there's a lot of evidence that that's due to sexual selection. And then there's also the widow birds Ah, in Africa and the fact that the widow birds very long tails and how that influences their survival. So we're asking toe, make the point here and explain the point that sexual selection can act contrary to natural selection. Right? And what we mean by that is that the traits that evolved due to sexual selection? Okay, so trades that evolved by sexual selection can sometimes reduced the overall chances of survival for males in this case. And if we think about the widow birds is an example. Um, remember that the window birds during mating season have these extravagantly long tails tails there longer, thorough bodies. And of course, that makes them more vulnerable. Two predators and more visible to predators rights. And, you know, it's like dragging a weight around right, so it probably makes it hurt. A fly becomes more difficult, and that makes it means it's harder to avoid predators. Ah, and then, of course, there's a cost. You just have the body of the male has to produce those really long feathers. Um, so predators are a problem, and then there's a cost of just making the long brothers. And, um, what the researchers found was that when you compared, the little think of is the normal males. It's the control males, right? Um, that they had, as their tail feathers got longer and longer, their body quality declined as well. So, um so this is the experimental males with their tails cut, and these air the the control males who did not have their tails cut and what you can see in the graph. And this is time since they established their territories. And this is body condition. And so what this tells us is that just having long tail feathers is a really drag and your body condition just you can't. It's harder to target to maintain yourself and your in poorer and poorer shape. And so that is telling us that sexual selection that is is contrary to natural section because the females right females, prefer these guys. They have, you know, three times the matings, right? So that sexual selection in action in this case, inter sexual selection. But natural selection, of course, is giving these guys a really hard time. All right, So poor condition. So that's a nice example of, ah of how natural selection and sexual selection can working in different ways on the same.

Problem 12 from Chapter 50 is looking at the mating patterns. Oh, females. So some female organisms will actually mate with one male and then subsequently mate with a second male. Now these females are going to have higher standards for the second male, so they are going to be choosier about the second meal, and this is due to the second male advantage. So studies have shown that the second male will actually father more offspring than the first male. And this is because the sperm of the second male will physically displace or dislodge the sperm of the first male, resulting in ah higher number of offspring for male number two. Therefore, females are going to be more selective when it comes to the second male, seen as they father more of their offspring.


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