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Laura Purdy "Surrogate Mothering: Exploitation orEmpowerment."Explain Purdy's consequentialist argument in favor of surrogacy.Do you agree with this?...

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Laura Purdy "Surrogate Mothering: Exploitation orEmpowerment."Explain Purdy's consequentialist argument in favor of surrogacy.Do you agree with this?Explain Purdy's argument that surrogacy is not baby-selling, andthat it is womb rental. Do you agree with her view that this isokay?What are the circumstances in which surrogate mothering iswrong, and why? Do you agree with her argument? You may want toconsider the surrogacy industry in India.

Laura Purdy "Surrogate Mothering: Exploitation or Empowerment." Explain Purdy's consequentialist argument in favor of surrogacy. Do you agree with this? Explain Purdy's argument that surrogacy is not baby-selling, and that it is womb rental. Do you agree with her view that this is okay? What are the circumstances in which surrogate mothering is wrong, and why? Do you agree with her argument? You may want to consider the surrogacy industry in India.



Answers

The practice of buying and selling gametes, particularly eggs from fertile women, is becoming common in the United States and some other industrialized nations. Do you object to this type of transaction? Would you sell your gametes? At any price? Whether you would do so or not, should this practice be restricted?

All right. Today we're gonna be answering the question on whether parents should be able to choose the sex of their baby or to choose, uh, in some ways, a genetic modification of their baby, um, as a result of in vitro fertilization or, you know, the ability for that technology to offer those choices. Um So as technology becomes increasingly capable and available for people to choose the genetic outcomes of their offspring, many ethical and legal considerations must be taken into account when deciding which practices air acceptable, which are not. Ah, this is one headline that it was in the news a couple of years ago. Um, when you know, these types of questions are coming to the fore now because, um, you know the technologies available and people have the option of choosing whether have a boy or girl. Um, so the question becomes should people be allowed to do that? So there are a lot of people that have ah, um have a stake in the answer to that question. So we'll look at a few of the stakeholders we're going to look at, um, what is determined to be acceptable in unacceptable criteria for making those decisions. And then finally, um, you know what type of legislation might be needed? Toe help ensure either the availability of choice or limitations on that choice. So who should decide these types of questions? Who are the stakeholders? Well, you've got patients. Of course, people who are having these procedures are done or taking part in these procedures. On you've got doctors. You've got lawmakers, lawyers, scientists and ethicists. You know, people who try and decide, you know, is this morally conscionable? Um, practice. Um so all these people must be brought in to weigh the pros and cons off some of these proposed practices in leaders in these situations. Um, as decision makers will need to consider input from all the stakeholders. And I should mention that is, with most of life's complicated issues, there are no clear cut yes or no answers, which sometimes make them difficult to resolve. So how do we decide? Um, there are what is known as acceptable criterion unacceptable criteria. So acceptable criteria would be, you know, generally speaking, what most people would accept, what behaviors were choices with people, um, consider acceptable. Um, some examples specifically for making choices whether it's regard to sex of the child or different genetic makeup of the child. Um, for these embryos, that result from in vitro fertilization might be debilitating or deadly diseases. Um, some examples. Tie Sachs disease, very deadly. Cystic fibrosis. Very debilitating. Duchenne muscular dystrophy also very debilitating, often leading to death. Um, so those types of criteria, um, when there's debilitating disease, especially genetically, uh, derived disease. Um, people consider those acceptable criteria to decide to make a choice of having a baby that does not have these diseases. Um, with regard to sex, another consideration might be intra family. That's within the family. Ah, um, sex or gender balancing. So if a family has three boys already and they want to have a girl, people generally consider that to be acceptable. And it doesn't seem to upset the natural balance that nature has struck with sexual reproduction there being 50 percent male and 50% female. Generally speaking, I know there are, ah, lots. There's lots of gender fluidity and in sexual variations within within this general dichotomy, Um, but generally speaking, the balance is 50 50. And so, as long as there's not an upset of that people seemed to be having a favorable view of yeah, practice being okay within a family. And when you get to larger families, it doesn't seem to be is acceptable. I'll talk about that in a minute. That leads us to unacceptable criteria. This would be criteria that most people do not accept. Um, you know, for one reason or another, they are a new agreement. These air not acceptable reasons to be able to make these particular choices. So with regard to um with regard to choosing the sex or the generic outcome of the baby, um, most people don't accept that it's okay to base that on cultural or personal preferences that leads to the example in China and in India. There is a strong motivation for families to have males being born in male heirs. Um, and that has resulted in about, UM, 70 million more males than females between those two countries. And that's resulted in a lot of problems from very personal problems on the part of males like loneliness to farther reaching societal problems. More challenges for those countries, um, in the form of male violence, um, often against women in the form of human trafficking of women prostitution, um, in other violent crimes. So, you know, there could be a riel problem when we when this decision is allowed in accordance with cultural practices where you know where the balance is. Not really. Come. Um, some other unacceptable criteria would be things like selecting for superficial traits like eye color. Um, you might also be able to say things like hiding intelligence. But currently, those traits are so complex in our, you know, the results of interactions of many, many genes, sometimes thousands of genes that currently we don't have the technology to select four you know, ah, specific genes for intelligence or height or many other trades for that. But at some point in the fourth in the future and made, that may become possible. Um, this is just, ah, another, um, headline about the imbalance, um, and, you know, and gender becoming a problem when it's when it's imbalanced. I'm so the last thing here is, so we have an idea of what's acceptable. It's not acceptable in general terms, and there is no strong legislation on this currently. So the point will be, you know, some point do we have to legislate. There's a couple things to consider. Um, different people have different interpretations. So while one person's ah, inter family personal preference, um, you know would be one person's profits may seem valid to them on the outside or in a cultural sense, it may not be, um, you know, it may not be the preferred choice or an acceptable choice, and so different people are gonna have to for new interpretations that's gonna run some conflict. Um, sometimes people are going to be more self serving. Were self, you know, act in their own self interest. And that might not be the ah, um, the best choice for everybody involved, Um, that leads to sometimes something called the tragedy of the comments. It's a hypothetical experiment where you have a shared resource in if there are no laws to limit usage of that resource. Um, you know, people can agree on not using that resource or limiting their use, but somebody's and say, Well, if there's no law than technically I can do that, I can use up the resource and another person will say, Well, if they can use the resource that I can use resource And now all of sudden you've got everybody working in their own self interest and, you know, the shared resource is pleaded. That's a general example, but it can still apply for everybody's working in their own self interest. You can get situations where it could be. Making those choices can be very problematic. So, um, eventually people will disagree on what those interpretations bean. And so the law will then have to interpret what the limits are. So you know, when the demand is low for making this choice, there's probably not as much need for legislation but as the demand made become stronger than, uh, then you will we will need the law to interpret those limits. So there we have it, um, you know, some understanding the criteria for, um for acceptable and unacceptable criteria for choosing the sex or the genetic, Uh, you know, the genetic markers for the child and, um, also who's who are the stakeholders for making those decisions. And finally, um, we will probably have to legislate at some point, although the demand is not high for that right now.

Let's kind of discuss um biological richness, um the ethical and moral arguments of why it should be preserved versus kind of the you tallit or utilitarian arguments that are kind of uh taking a louder voice to um ethical and moral arguments. So um mostly this is meant to be your opinion based on what you know. So I'm just going to bring up some points um that you should think about when forming um that opinion. Obviously since it will be your opinion, you need to gather the information at hand to build to form it fully. Um so I will just bring up some talking points and then let you write what you think. So, just to um define utilitarian ins um it is a theory of morality, but it advocates actions that foster happiness or pleasure, basically just opposing actions that will cause unhappiness or harm. So utilitarian XyZ would say inaction is right if it results in the happiness of the greatest number of people in a society or a group, um but as we know from certain situations, what will make you happy in the moment is not what will make you happy in the future. So it's kind of utilitarian kind of live in just that moment um instead of kind of looking for it to the future, so instead of pleasure and happiness having intrinsic value um and that everyone's happiness counts equally, uh I want to focus on what would be better just for the future, more forward thinking. So um I mean, just a couple of reasons why the value of biological richness over just being happy, just wanted, lee using resources for happiness in the moment um would be obviously different moral reasons. Uh there should be a culture that would encourage respect and stewardship for wildlife and ecosystems, that that would be preferable to culture, that does not take those things seriously. So if we look at utilitarianism, that kind of, if you just kind of look at our, at our societies right now, we're kind of focused on over consumption. Will these products make me happy? However these products are destroying a valuable ecosystem but they make me happy right now. So this is the right choice. Um instead of looking forward to the future where this over consumption is going to lead to the annihilation of a very important portion in biodiversity. Um you can also look at aesthetic reasons. Um landscape species ecosystems should be concerned because they're beautiful and they enrich the lives of humans so they could make us happy. Um I don't know about you but I always am happier when I spend time outdoors and it has been proven that humans when they are connected to nature, they are happier. They are healthier, both mentally and physically. So it is important there uh ecosystems do serve humans because they provide natural functions they provide the things that we need. So I know talking about germs and microbes does not make everyone happy. They can often be seen as bad things. However, they're extremely vital to the ecosystem in the breakdown of dead plant animal remains so that they recycle the nutrients back through the system. So um again nature will make you happy if it is functioning properly. Um biodiversity does actually provide um both economic and material benefits to people. We obviously benefit from the growth of crops. We do need food in order to sustain our lives. Um However, if crops are being grown in an extremely unsustainable way or being harvested out of a certain ecosystem, feel look at palm oil. It it does provide both material and economic benefit. However, it is being harvested and grown unsustainably and it is destroying ecosystems and animal habitats um just for the benefit of beauty, products and foods that we eat. So um you know if we overuse that it makes us happy now, but if we destroy it and lose it all in the future, is was it worth it? Um evolutionary processes are being disrupted um due to human interference. Like how we should really look into how far humans really need to interfere in nature. Should we interfere or should we be more part of it? Um Obviously we were meant to be part of it and so we should try to function alongside of it instead of profiting off it. Um You can also kind of look at it as kind of like a insurance policy. We don't know precisely what the future will hold. We can predict it based on the trends that are happening now. Um right now it doesn't look so bright in certain instances, um, climate change, possible overpopulation. We don't know, um, all of these things. So if, you know, species, habitats, ecosystems become totally extinct, humans will never be able to benefit from them, or we might destroy things. Uh, things might be so far gone that we will never know the benefits we could have had from it. So, um, I mean, the main moral argument, an ethical argument you would be looking at is how can we live alongside, rather than just reaping pure happiness from destroying the planet that we live on. Um, so just lots and lots of things to consider for forming your opinion.

Or we beat us at those organism with give but directly to the young ones. So O v do you give? Do it but and next one is really Bavis. So these organisms barely eke. So most of the any metal and kingdom from in the mammalian D or most of them are from over Paris Organisms so or be bilis organisms that directly give birth to their young ones and an orchard them by feeding breastfeeding or yeah, breast feeding as the capital aloof, producing milk read as VP. This organisms they cannot produce milk and Billy E eggs. So what they do is first off. What the meeting, the temperature off the egg, the main thing, the temperature off the in before it hatches and after hatching the north chur by feeding the new words.


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