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A fly with ebony body (e) rough eyes (ro) and brevis bristles ((bv) is crossed with a fly that is homozygous for the wild-type traits to generate the F1 progeny: Th...

Question

A fly with ebony body (e) rough eyes (ro) and brevis bristles ((bv) is crossed with a fly that is homozygous for the wild-type traits to generate the F1 progeny: These oci have been mapped and are separated by the following map distance:The interference between these genes is 0.4. The F1 females are test-crossed with males that have ebony body, rough eyes_ and brevis bristles; 1800 progeny are produced_20 ML412 M.UWhat is the number of observed singl crossover between and ro?

A fly with ebony body (e) rough eyes (ro) and brevis bristles ((bv) is crossed with a fly that is homozygous for the wild-type traits to generate the F1 progeny: These oci have been mapped and are separated by the following map distance:The interference between these genes is 0.4. The F1 females are test-crossed with males that have ebony body, rough eyes_ and brevis bristles; 1800 progeny are produced_ 20 ML4 12 M.U What is the number of observed singl crossover between and ro?



Answers

In Drosophila, vermilion eye color is due to a recessive allele $(v)$ located on the $\mathrm{X}$ chromosome. Curved wings is due to a recessive allele ( $c u$ ) located on one autosome, and ebony body is due to a recessive allele ( $e$ ) located on another autosome. A vermilion male is mated to a curved, ebony female, and the $\mathrm{F}_{1}$ males are phenotypically wild-type. If these males were backcrossed to curved, ebony females, what proportion of the $\mathrm{F}_{2}$ offspring will be wild-type males?

Hey, there. Today we're doing another fun genetics problem. Okay? Eso We're looking at fruit flies as per usual. Most common thing, I would say used in any genetics problem is fruit flies because they let's actually think about that. Why are they used so much? Okay, um, the reason they're used so much is because they have really short lifespans and very distinct. They're very simple creatures that reproduce quickly, which makes genetic experiments on them. Super easy cost effective, humane. They don't really have, like, pain receptors, like my stew or anything like that. And it makes life a lot easier and you don't have to deal with. Like, for example, if you're doing in sexual things, that matters a lot less on more simple organisms, like flies. Okay, Okay. So moving on. We're talking about auto Cemal recessive genes, and they're on the chromosome three. They are separated by 20 map units, which is what the EMU stands for. On this, I've kind of written out. Basically, I'm going to go over this. I thought it would be easier and more organized if I kind of just typed it for you. Uh, that way that you can see what the answers are, but I'm going through the math. So posit any point if you want to stuff I've hand written comes from the equation itself. This is the information that we need. Basically, I would write this down always. I would write down all the information you'll think you'll need, so I would write down, uh, chromosome three and 20 map units, which I kind of wrote down right here. So this stuff is important because you're like it's just word jumble. But it is important. You know, you want to be able to look at this information and make and not get too overwhelmed because word problems air overwhelming. That's very valid. It is to Mia's well and realized that you just need to simplify the problem down into a math problem because that's all it is. It's a math problem. It's just a math problem using concepts, concepts. And that's the only time biologists really do. Math is when they have to apply biology, and you have to be able to know how to do this because in a lab typesetting you'll have some grad student or whatever working for you, right and saying you go inject or something like that, but they won't know the concepts or you'll have some computer science person doing it. They won't know the concept, so you have to be able to explain to them how to do the concepts. So even though a lot of times people are like and I don't really have to do this, it's still important to know how to do it. You have to be able to know how to do it. Yet the walk before you can run or whatever, you know what I mean? Like, you have to know how to start off before you can be a big bus. Anyway, Sorry that was a bit of a it's it's important I'm going to stick by its important. So let's move on with a So we have this combination and the re pumped convict recombination frequency between E and row is 20%. That's stated in the question. That's where I got that number and as they're separated on chromosome three, but 20 map units eso each of the re competence is then e plus row and e row plus will be 10% in each of the non re competent so e plus r oh, plus an e r O will be 40% as f sorts. Independently. Each of these will be split equally among F positive and F and Thena types of the progeny. And they're expected proportion is what is following that. So I kinda it doesn't really matter. It's best to have a system, right? So I use the same on both. Um, look at this. So e plus r oh, plus f plus, um, that's a recombination frequency. It's 20%. We know that, um, it has to be split equally among so it's 20%. Okay, does that make any sense? Uh, basically, you're doing You want to be able to share equally between ethnic positive. And so that's why it's 20%. Um, as you move down, though, it becomes 5% Which is interesting. Um, because look. Okay, so remember, we're sharing this equally e plus r o. So that's what that is right there. And then e r and then divided by two. Basically because of the how they're split equally. Anyway, I hope that helps you understand that one. It's a little complex at first, but once you get the hang of it. It's easy. I mean, you don't even need a calculator. Just divide by two e plus our. So that's that's part A That that is the finished answer. You're just dividing by two. It's it's really not that Oh, it's more concept, jewel, once you get the concept a concept down the math of super easy. So I just used Blue to indicate all the answers You're gonna want to write down all this. It gets confusing. So I have a system. I went positive and then I did. Yeah, you see? So next up we have be the calculations are the same as an A, but the Onley here, the re competence R e plus R oh, plus e r o and the non re competence R e plus R o N E r oh plus So it switches them. It's the same thing, but it switches them. So you just do the math. You figure out that those air no longer the re confidence is still 40% 10%. Just you're switching thes with these ones that are the non re competence in the last one, and so you're getting 5% 5% 5%. 5%. 20%? 20%? 20%. 20%. Anyway, I hope that helps you understand this type of problem. Um, usually these type of problems are done with something else. So you like, have a map unit problem combined with a bunch of other different things, like chi squares. Whatever. So I hope that helps you understand. Have a great day.

Fellow distance today. We're going to answer this question where it talks about another federal. Typically we while type female fruit fly for I try to do that three times Female fruit flies. Um Hetero scientists for the two jeans mentioned in the previous problem with crossed to the head. Ro ro zika's black fist festival. Just particular. I'm milk. Sorry if I let your dad um look for us between the cross produced the following progeny, which was a great body normal being. Um, let me write this down. Great body. Yeah. Oh, mm hmm. Which was 23. Okay, mm. A great body I'm sure. Yes. Okay fest tickle. Yeah, bastard Children. Um wings. Yeah. Which is 127. Can I Fix This 7? Yes. Um, when I was a black fun. Yeah. You know. Yes. Um Just 120- four. A black party. Right? Oh good. Yes. Festival means Which is 26. So. And they want to to this data indicates blanket. And also what is the frequency um, recombination diagram? Um, across showing the arrangement of the genetic markers on the credit itself with cancer. For the first one. It if does through these data as indicated linkage. Yes, it does. The 2nd 1 is um, what is the recumbent? The frequents of the frequency of recombination? So higher risk. Home the nation. Free clearing six. Yes, we're gonna we're going to use The 23 plus 26. I'm gonna put that on the top. Okay. You don't have to be in parentheses, but it's just good to try that. And 23 plus 26 plus 1. 27 plus 1 26. Yeah. And then we're gonna catch. We're going to calculate that. So the top part. Yeah. 29. Yeah. Yeah. Mhm. Mother with 302. And just to fight, were you going to kidding? 0. Uh 21 6 3. Having a frequency of her comments and diagram the cross showing the arrangements. So the genetic markers. Okay, so a lot of theories we can do that part. Yeah. Okay. So the diagram marker. So this is how I drew it, the best of my abilities. So I wrote down with cross and and uh so this is supposed to be represent for great body is supposed to represent for normal body. Black party and festival on wings. And if I said normal body tells my fault, I suppose to mean normal wings. And I will come to camp bates. And so the genetic mark her. I wrote like this where this supposed to represent for the great sorry, great body. Yes, it's supposed to be for the uh Thanks that those swings. Mhm. Yeah. Just for the black body is for the normally it does fit like it is a little bit extra. I just fit the percentage that you see the floor. The great body and Festival wings. That it would be um 42% a great body appreciation. And my body over transmit Sure with a normal wings. Yeah. Mhm would be 41 1st Thing. Mhm. Um, and the one far black body and the yeah, Black body and the school wings would be 9% Great body over 1. 1 have criminals. Mm. What do you AI mean eight and yep, that is it. Um, I hope you found this very helpful and please feel free to look at your content from other creators that go over and explain whatever tractor questions you need extra help with. Okay, bye.

Because these jeans a Reppas static we cannot do a typical die hybrid cross You won't get the right answers So let's do it a different way If we take for a part a fly that is a headers I go for a judge and a headers I coat for s and you cross that fly with the same, um, Gino type fly. What you need to do is deal with the h is first, and so let's just do a simple mano hybrid cross and we'll figure out the ages first. So here, if we take hh little h cross that with H little h, we get a wonder to tow one Gino typical ratio. And so we need to do it this way because H in a Homa sagasti dominant condition is lethal. And so this set of fall applies. 1/4 is did. And so let's do the S cross the same way. And then I'll show you how to do this. Well, underline my SS that are recess it because otherwise you can't tell the difference between them. Okay, so now we have that. Now let's talk about Gina. Typical ratios. Let's deal with H first so 1/4 of the flies will have h h. But they that's lethal. So there did. And so then we need to deal with the 1/2. So 1/2 of our flies will be big H little h here they are. I startled him for you. So big H little h Now each of these h is have a possibility to have some combination with these s is that we did. And so what we're gonna do is we're going to take each possible s. So homes like this dominant s headers I go s lips and home is obvious process. It s and we're going to figure out the ratios of the offspring. And so the way we do it is that will take 1/2 headers. I go h and will multiply it by each of these s possibilities. So the 1st 1 is 1/4 big s biggest, but we know from the information in the problem that biggest, biggest this lethal. And so that tells us 1/2 times 1/4 is 1/8. So 1/8 that is headers. I go h and two big s is they die because, homes, I guess dominant s is lethal. Now let's take our half headers. I go h and multiply it by the half that are headers. I go for s and that's not lethal. And so 1/2 times 1/2 is 1/4 and will be 14 feathers. I go for both jeans and they'll be Harry because the big s overrides its episodic Teoh h and that the last one we need to do is for this little s So times 1/4 2 little s is and 1/2 times 1/4 is 1/8. And so Big H says that fly will be hairless and the two little esses are unable to override that condition. So this flies will be careless. And now we need to do the same thing for the 1/4 little ages and so again, 1/4 times 1/4 big s biggest. That's 1 16 1/16 little H little H Big s Big s that he will die because that condition is lethal. Then we could do 1/4 little h little age tons. The 1/2 of the flies that are gonna be home headers, I guess For s and 1/4 times. 1/2 is 1/8 little H little age Nick s little s and these guys will be hairy because the dominant s overrides the hairless H and then 1/4 little H little H times 1/4 little s little s, And that gives us 1/16 of our allies will be home is, I guess, for both traits that fly will be hairless because there's no big esto override the little s her little ages. And so if we look at our results, what we will see is that if the flies live, 9/16 of them will be Carrie. And so that's a certain groups. 7 to 2 ratio of Harry. Now, if we take the same thing that we just did when we apply it that strategy and will move this up strategy to be part we can do the same thing. And so we have a homeless, I guess H fly that has a too little ages of homeless, I guess. Process it with headers. I get fly for both traits. We should expect we could do the crosses again if you want to. So here we have big H little H big H little h two big h is and you can finish the cross like this so we can talk about how we expect to have a 1 to 2 to one ratio for age. However, look at the s. Is there different than what we just did? So if we cross homos, I guess process it fly with a header Psycho fly We get a 1 to 1 ratio of biggest little s two homos August process. It s and that changes our outcome. But again, you know, this guy here h h in the dominant form is lethal. And so we have no lethal combinations in s. So all we need to do is take the 1/2 big H little age and multiply that by the 1/2 of the flies that are gonna have a guest little s and 1/2 of the flies that have too little s is And that will give us that, um, 1/4 of these flies because 1/2 tugs 1/2 1 quarter or going big h little age big s little age and those supplies will be Harry. And then we'll do the same thing here. 1/2 big age little age times 1/2 little as little s gives us 1/4 Big H, little and H and too little s is And that fly will be careless Because, remember, capital H is going to produce a hairless condition. We're almost there. So now we need to take the 1/4 of the flies that are going to be a little H little aids and breathe them this way. So 1/4 little h little age times, 1/2 biggest little s and then 1/2 little s little s And that gives us a ratio of flaws that are 1/8 Harry and 18 not Harry. So here, 1/8 little H little H Big s little s in 18 little H Lanois and too little It s is. And so these guys will be hairy and these guys will be careless. And so that gives us a ratio of 3/4 of the living offspring will be hairy. So that's to tow one or 75% or 3/4 will be Harry. And that's how you tackle that. But remember, because these jeans a rep, a static to each other, you cannot do a typical dot hybrid cross ratios will be off. So be sure to pay attention when you read these types of questions to identify at the Stace is and then do mono hybrid crosses. And do you like this branching tree math in order to calculate appropriate ratios?

Love independent assortment by mental stage sets. Else off genes are inherited. They inherited independently off each other's the linkages, the condition in which the genes are present together. While in Ritter generation found after the many years off mender, sometimes jeans air so closely presented a chromosome, then it will not be sorted independent into the next generation. This condition opposes the second law of mental finding. So in other words, linkage is the exception. Or we can say deviation from the law. Independent assortment or the second Law of Genetics and concerned cross her true Dikkers for two characters females Fruit fly crossed with male with resistive home. Ojeda's genes for the same characters results off the cross. Our great body with normal things are 1 26 black body with vestigial wing is 1 25 great body with vestigial wing is 24. Black body with normal things is 26. Ah, symbol for body color and different length of things are great. Bodies be like bodies. Clippers normal things is V G plus and vestigial wings is Vigee, so the cross will be great body normal. Wien are, um, BG BG plus then B and B G and here is the black body with vestigial wings be beachy and B v g. This is the histories, I guess. Female Jada's female and the 60 home was like a female. So the cross would be, Yeah, first great body, no moving B plus B G plus be Maiti 1 26 and then they black body was teacher wing Black body was teacher living Will they be B g B B g? It is all it is 1 24 So total is to 50 parent tell Then again, we have black. I'm sorry, Gray body Vestigial ving is B plus V G and B B and which is a total of 24. Uh, it's black body normal. Ving A P V G plus B and VG total is 26th two so 50 Sorry, 53 convenient out of 300 progeny is 20 to 50 year out off 300 progeny he's 2 50 are but until on da 50 ah re convenient type This results is This result is deviation from required mental ratio that is, one is to one is 21 is 21 The provided data shows that the linkages. President between the gene off the body color and winky link. So frequency off recombination estimate of the proportion off the recombinant progeny in across It can be measured by the formula frequency off Riffa frequency off re combination is equal to number off. Recombinant. Throw Jeannie upon. Yeah, number off total Perot. Jenny. So over the help off of ah formula, we can estimate the recombination off frequency of body color and we engine of the fly. So, uh, frequency of rock recombination number off recombinant progeny as 50 and a number of total Virginia is 300. That is zero point six. Therefore, the recombinant frequency mhm Rico Vinent frequency is less than 50%. So this result proves that Jean off body gala and moving length are linked Fred each other


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