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This behavior reduces an individual's reproductive fitness while increasing the fitness of the family.(A) Altruism(B) Agonistic behavior(C) Territoriality(D) C...

Question

This behavior reduces an individual's reproductive fitness while increasing the fitness of the family.(A) Altruism(B) Agonistic behavior(C) Territoriality(D) Cooperation(E) Imprinting

This behavior reduces an individual's reproductive fitness while increasing the fitness of the family. (A) Altruism (B) Agonistic behavior (C) Territoriality (D) Cooperation (E) Imprinting



Answers

This behavior reduces an individual's reproductive fitness while increasing the fitness of the family.
(A) Altruism
(B) Agonistic behavior
(C) Territoriality
(D) Cooperation
(E) Imprinting

Those questions, asking about sacrificing one individual to save some others. So what I've drawn here is a pedigree or family tree, and the females are represented by the circles and males air represented by the squares. And what we can see is these two parents have produced for offspring to females to males. And this question is asking what happens about the vocabulary term for when one individual sacrificed themselves to save of the relatives genes? Let's take this female here. Let's say she has the opportunity to to sacrifice her own life. Um, but But save some relatives so this could relate to either her siblings or her parents. And when we think about this individual from a DNA perspective, so they have their own collection of of DNA's. I've drawn some four chromosomes here, Um, but so this individual's DNA ISS 50% similar to their siblings. So 50% similar to their brother, 50% similar sister, 50% smarter, other brother and then also 50% similar thio, uh, the mom's DNA and 50% similar to the dads. So even if this individual needs to sacrifice themselves, it can be beneficial. You would think that that would, uh, cause be selected against because it would prevent this DNA from being passed on. You know, this individual would not have the opportunity to mate and past any DNA onto its offspring, but, um, bye. Increasing the survival or fitness of all of these offspring. The this DNA may actually have a greater chance to be passed on because these parents can continue to reproduce additional offspring or the siblings are given the opportunity to reproduce and produce additional offspring, 50% of which is related to to her own. So this D N A can actually have a better chance of getting passed on if an individual sacrificed themselves to save their relatives. Um, another word for relatives is Kim. So let's look through our potential options here. Is it called opera conditioning? No, that's the type of training behavior. Um, is it called kin selection? Eso option B is actually correct. Um, the behavior is allowing the kins DNA to be passed on and selected four. Even though the DNA of the individual and sacrificed themselves can't be passed on to their offspring, it can continue to live on through the relatives or can um, they throw a similar sounding word. See, Kinesis in here is a distracter. That that's just relating to a type of motion and biology or a de imprinting is a connection. Ah, psychological connection that's formed between, uh, newborns and usually a parent, uh, but does not relate to sacrificing one individual to see the relative. So again, the correct answer to this question is be Kinsella.

Hello, everyone. Today I'll be helping you with the 14 problem of the chapter 43 problems. It and this question is asking, what is it called? One of female mates with many males. So I would do this by process of elimination and, uh, basically throw out any of the ones that do not make sense. So a is polygamy? Oh, polygamy. That means many mates, right? So maybe you could be true. Well, we'll come back to it later. So and then, uh, Polly entry. Okay, well, that's not similar. Poly means multiple monogamy will know because Manami monogamy meets your monogamous so you don't have many mates. So false. I d is kin selection, which no, not necessarily. Because that's a selection due to the success of another's relatives. I No, not really. E is altruism to know because altruism is the behavior that has the potential to decrease reproductive us of another. So no. So, no, it's between ah, Polly polygamy and polygamy and polyandry. So polygamy actually is when a male mates with many females and not when it failed female mates with many males, that is actually what B is polyandry is dealing with females mating with males. So that is a big difference. Which is why the answer is B Paulie Entry. So I hope you found this very helpful. But I hope you have a great day. Thank you.

Hello, everyone. Today we're gonna talk about some aspects of animal behaviour before we get started. Let's start by just simply defining what behavior is behavior is the way an animal reacts to a specific stimulus. In other words, just a response to a specific stimulus. While we're at it now, why don't we just go ahead and define what a stimulus is to make sure we're all on the same page? And we all know that key vote have it's gonna be so essential to this lesson. A stimulus is any sign or sing signal that will elicit a response in an animal. I want to take this time to mention that not all responses to stimuli are actually behaviors. For example, when you sweat, that's a physiological response. Not so much a big April response behaviours a really interesting because animals can develop them and more than one way behaviours ca NBI. Either innate or they can be learned. If the behavior is innate, that means that it was inherited through the animal's DNA. They have always have it. It's a part of who they are. If it has learned, that means that an animal was able to pick up that behavior by watching either their family members or other animals of the same species, including their parents. No, I'm sure you all know is my little turtle friend. He is giving us a perfect example of the behavior he's hiding in his shell now. What could have caused a behavior? A pretty telling stimulus. Perhaps the turtle saw his predator, and now he knew he needed to bunker away and stay safe. That's why seeing a predator walk around would be a stimulus. It caused the reaction, which is the behavior. Now let's focus on the innate behavioral phenomena again, in a just means instinctive. This means that this is code for within the animal's DNA. We can also tell us in eight, because often the animal will have this behavior from birth. They don't need to learn it. They don't realize as they get older, they just always have it. The first phenomenon we're gonna talk about is one of my favorites. I think it's super super cute. This is imprinting. Imprinting is when an animal, usually a baby, recognizes something as its parent. This is super important now when they recognize someone has their parents they gain that habitual trust where they would just blindly follow whatever they recognize as their parents anywhere. We often see this with ducklings. The reason why duckling sometimes follow humans around in those funny videos on Facebook or Instagram is because for some reason that duckling imprinted on the human. This usually happens if a human happens to be in the area. When a duckling hatches and the mother is not there to catch the ducklings, I wanna first. When it first comes into this world, the next phenomena that we're going to start discussing is a fixed action pattern. No, this sounds exactly like what it is. It's an action that's fixed. It can't be stopped once it be, once it has began, even once the stainless is taken away. So now let's do a more formal definition. A fixed action pattern is a behavior that is inherited or innate that, once started cannot be stopped until completion. This occurs even if the stimulus is removed from the situation. This is super common with nesting birds, especially a specific type of geese. So what happens is the mother goose will often catch eggs ruling out for nest, she innate Lee rolls the eggs back into the nest. The reason why this is considered a fixed action pattern is because even if the egg gets removed halfway back to the nest or if there's a rock near her nest, the mother duck Sorry, the Mother Goose will continue to roll it into the nest. She'll continue that motion in that behavior, even if the egg isn't there or even it's a different object that looks like an egg. Next, we're gonna move on to the more learned phenomena. The first learned phenomena is classical conditioning. I find this one really, really cool. So classical conditioning is when two completely unrelated stimuli are paired together. And eventually the response that's a list that's elicited by the first stimuli will be elicited by the second stimuli on its own. This this became popular through Pavlov's experiments with his dogs. What happened? Waas Pavlov noticed. Whenever he was about to give his dogs food, they would start salivating. The stimulus was the food, the response and the behavior was the salivating, the drooling. He then started ringing a bell at mealtime so the dog would see their food. They would start salivating and then he would ring a bell. He repeated this over and over again until eventually he could ring the bell at any point in the day in the dogwood. Immediately start salivating. These second learned phenomena is called operate conditioning. Operate. Conditioning is when a behavior can either increase in frequency and strength or decrease in frequency and strength, depending on whether or not it's been reinforced or punished. This is how humans learn, and often times we see his example in little Children. The child who says thank you and gets treats every time he says Thank you is going to be saying thank you a lot more often than the child who doesn't get treats and doesn't get special treatment. Same thing goes if a child is punished. If a child hits his sibling and gets punished for it each time, then the child is going to be less likely to engage in that negative behavior. Unfortunately, though, this can happen with the reinforcement, and punishment can work with negative behaviors as well. So if you positively reinforce and negative behavior such as a child's crying and pouting, you give the kid tons and tons of attention than that. Behavior is also going to increase in frequency. So what it comes down to eventually is that reinforcement increases behavior, Whether it's negative or positive and punishment brings down behavior, it decreases behavior, whether it's negative or positive. This last one I want to write in pink because it's kind of weird. Altruism is actually neither learned or in a. It's a combination of both altruism. It's simply selflessly helping others or helping others at the risk of harming oneself. We see this in both humans, and we also see in vampire bats. Basically, what it comes down to is pack animals have more of the innate ability, the DNA coding in their systems to want to be altruistic, to want to help those around them, even at risk for themselves. However, it's also learned because the more you help someone and get that positive reinforcement, like we've seen operate conditioning, the more likely you are to continuously help someone. However, if you constantly help someone and risk your own safety or well being and you're not getting that reciprocated, then you're less likely to help someone. As I said, vampire bats do this with feeding. If about is constantly giving up the dinner that he caught two about who's starving. But then, when he's starving, is never getting that reciprocated. He's gonna be less likely to be altruistic in the future, especially towards that bat that didn't help him in his time of need. I hope that was helpful and thank you so much.

This question Working at the behavior of Blue Jays in But blueberries will help the parents raise its siblings in boba knots directly their offspring. Now what is her blue to doing when it's us? This is a increasing. Its reproductive success are not directly but blue. Jay itself is not reproducing. It is helping its siblings. Increasing their genetic fitness would never be status in the dominance hierarchy on no, this is a very standard behavior, but they do, regardless of any kind of hierarchy. It does not increase for status. See out for us a behavior well, it appears to be out for sticking that they're helping on organism is not about direct offspring. But if we look at de inclusive fitness that this is Beyonce, we want because the siblings are closely related to a blue jay on by helping one, they do help pass on their own genes, although not to the same extent as their words. If they had offspring because their siblings, future Children, will be less related to my own Children, however, they are inclusive. It about our increasingly includes fitness. So the answer honesty


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