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The complex mechanism of nicotine dependency makes challenging- Cvalvate dependence PIouf rescarchers estimated nicorinc dependence levels for : Bioup of Chinese ru...

Question

The complex mechanism of nicotine dependency makes challenging- Cvalvate dependence PIouf rescarchers estimated nicorinc dependence levels for : Bioup of Chinese rural-urban migrants and identified severa potential determinants - ag0, education and severity of airflow obstruction (all determinants are categorical varables) What type statistical mcrhod wquld Vou USC evaluate tne determinants' effects on nicotine dependence; _hichE mcasuredusing_sicontinuous dfferent itens and why? (0.5 point

The complex mechanism of nicotine dependency makes challenging- Cvalvate dependence PIouf rescarchers estimated nicorinc dependence levels for : Bioup of Chinese rural-urban migrants and identified severa potential determinants - ag0, education and severity of airflow obstruction (all determinants are categorical varables) What type statistical mcrhod wquld Vou USC evaluate tne determinants' effects on nicotine dependence; _hichE mcasuredusing_sicontinuous dfferent itens and why? (0.5 points) What stcps woud you do first before running the final analysis? Please describe (0.75 points)



Answers

Another cigarette Consider again the regression of Nicotine content on Tar (both in milligrams) for the
cigarettes examined in Exercise 37.
a) What is the correlation between Tar and Nicotine?
b) What would you predict about the average Nicotine content of cigarettes that are 2 standard deviations below average in Tar content?
c) If a cigarette is 1 standard deviation above average in Nicotine content, what do you suspect is true about its Tar content?

This question is the last question that's looking at the cigarette data from excess 37. So you need the information in that question. So this one I've written out the important information from excites a seven on the top left that we're gonna need. So let's just get started with part A. They asked us to write the equation off the regression line now with any aggression. Nine. You're looking at an equation that looks something like this, which says our prediction of why is a plus b X So here we get told that are dependent is nicotine. So we know that our why huh is nicotine. And it's important that the hat on nicotine as well, because you need to show that you know you're aware that it's a prediction and not an actual value are a is our intercept on again that's given in the question, and then the last bit is B X. Now we know that X is going to be tar on in excess of seven. You're told that the coefficient of tar is not point, not 655 to, So you put the three piece information you were given in the same equation on that's it apart. A part B is asking us to estimate the nicotine content of cigarettes with four milligrams of tar. Now, this is just some substitution were short. Nick did. And so we do our equation. And where is his talk? We're gonna sub in that full milligrams so and we have the no point no 65 nor five to is going to give us no 0.262 boots on. If that is added to the no 0.14403 we get predicted nicotine content of not put 414 to 38 milligrams. That's what be moving on to Part C is offering us to interpret the meaning of the slope of the regression er in his context. So slope is ah curre efficient of tall which is no point. Not 65 nor five to now The slope is telling us about the relationship between tar Nichting. So for every one murga increase in tall, we would predict and no point no 6505 to the, uh increase in nicotine. So it just shows when teller in Crete an increase in talking 10 how much would we expect? The nicotine content on that would produce quite a small, quite shallow pseudo prohibit of being something that's a bit like that. If nicotine's on the why until was on exhibition a quite shallow slope and that is what it is in the context. So looking at D, it's asking us what's up one cent mese Now why instep going much a regression equation? Is this that hip? It's on no 0.15403 to on This is saying what we predict the nicotine content to bay if tall. Zero. Because it will be where, if we look back at my little sketcher, it'll be where the black this is crossed. So if even if there was no taller in a cigarette, you would predict the nicotine content to your point. One of 54 milligrams on that is what it's saying in the context, and that's what the answer big for that part on the final part is Part E. And it's saying if a new brand of cigarette contains seven milligrams a talk on a nifty never with the residual of minus 0.5 milligrams, what is the next in contact of this. We need our equation for residual. So residual is our actual value Month are predicted body, and we need a residual to equal minus 9.5. So if that is actual monitor scripted, if we do it every rain, they are actual value, which is what we want to this question. Is that predicted by a minus? No point. But what I've done there is moved the p to this side of the equation. So if we use that equation, we no need toe workout. What I'll put about he was gonna be. And that is exactly what we did before with a bit of substitution. So we have n well. Hey, uh, the smoke point No. Six. But fuck to this time of subbing in seven now and exactly the same Maybe did before. This will total North 0.6093 No. Four. Now we need to take this that substrates in hit. So we're gonna have our actual equals. No, 0.6 No. Three, My four minus no point. Fuck! This is going to give us an actual nicotine level, not 0.1094 runners rounded to four decimal places and that is everything that

Hello. Everyone in this video. We're going to determine and interpret cartels of 15 participants that have reported number of cigarettes smoked per day. First things first the sort our numbers from lowest to highest. Next we'll find a median of ar 15 participants which is the 8th position. 12345678. The 2nd 9 will be quartile to Yeah 4 to 2. Next we'll find quartile one including the median 1234. Because there is a total of eight. Yeah portal one. We will find quarter to three accounting four to the right of the media. 1234. Okay. Okay. Yeah. Next we'll interpret these cartels um in two different ways. 1st We look at the five Number summary. So our minimum is six. Which how one is 8, median is nine of course. How three is 10 and our Max 10. Yeah. Mhm. Let's also find the inter cartel range which is oh we got to. Yeah like you are without 3 10 buying this portal 1 8 which is to now as you can see the inter cartel ranges too, That means 50% of our data is captured within a range of two from 8 to 10. We have 50% of our participants. Now if we were to look at the five number summary, You can see that Cartel three is equal or identical to our max. You can also see that these numbers are relatively very close. Quartile one is also equal. Oh sorry this should be nine. You can see that quartile one is very close. two, quarter to quarter to is very close to a quartile three. From this five Number summary we can tell that our courthouse are very close are very close That that leads to two observations. one Our participants smoked within a very close range. For example, 6-10 Of only a four cigarette difference. 2nd, 2nd observation is that there are a lot of identical observations, which means that there aren't many variety we have, For example, we have six participants smoking 10 cigarettes per person, So this skews our data more towards the 10s. Mhm.

We are doing men with new just many news just is a non parametric alternative to the T test for the difference between two independent means. This test is often used in situations in which the two samples had run from the same population off subjects but different treatments I used on each set. Men with new test is equivalent. Sorry, we call Will Coxon rank sum test voices as 34. We are required to test the hypothesis. H notes. The average nicotine content is the same. The alternates you the average Nicholson content. Jeffers. Yeah, we are given the rank some for brain A and rank some for brandy ranks some for friends. A six 88 on the ranks. Some for B is five 87 and A is called Toe End. Be is equal to 25 and Alfa is the quality of 0.1 We use this information to calculate the U Test new states where you a is a quote to, and a that's spread by envy. Last and be That's bad by N b. Last one All developed Sorry they wanted they to minus R. P. She is a part two 25 times 25 last 25 times 25 plus one divided by two my nose five 87 Is your quality 36 Okay. U p is a culture 25 times 25 plus change of life No times 25 What else? One. There are two minus 688 This is the culture. 262 You star is equal to the minimum between you A and U P which is a quality to you. Be 262 but then need to calculate that stuff. Is it stuff we need toe Catholics first The mean which is a quality in a multiplied by nb You got it. Bye. So she is equal to 25 times 25 qualified to is equal to 312 point life they understand activation signifies the call to the squirrels off in a multiplied by nb multiplied by n a plus and be glass one all divided by 12 silly which is a quality Soon the squirrels off 25 squared must abide by 51. You are by 12 Is it closed? 51 wind 54 And that stuff is a call to use the miners. The main divided by the Standard Division is equal to two 62 My nose 312.5, developed by 51 point life. Oh, is a cultural negative. Zero point 98 within need to find a privilege. He Well, that's stuff less than I called to negative. Zero point 98 is a culture using 23 for that's winning and the left hand sale we could two times zero point 16 35 which is a quote, sir, zero point 3 to 7 for two t within. Compare the Pavilion, which is zero point 3 to 7 with Alfa, which is opened 01 Since he she's a colt, zero point 3 to 7 is greater in Alfa, which is 0.1 We do not reject H nodes and conclude it's 1% liver up Significant. That's the average Nicholson content is the same ends. 1% live in off significant. The average nicotine content is the same

So here we have a scatter plot that has a regression equation of C equals negative 10 t plus 632 where C is representing the in billions. The number of cigarettes consumed in the U. S. And T is representing the years since 1980. And so the first thing we're being asked is what? The sea intercept of the line? What that ISS. So the sea intercept of the line here looks like that would be 20 if it's even. And so I would say that that number since it's halfway or looks halfway between 626 140 I would say that the sea intercept would be 630. And so what that would tell me is that as afforded pair, this would be zero comma 630. And that would mean that zero years since 1980 which means we're in the year 1980 that there were 630 1,000,000,000 cigarettes consumed. The next is what this what is this over the line? And what information does that tell us? So again, our equation is y equals negative 10 T plus 632. So my slope is gonna be my coefficient of tea, which in this case, is gonna be negative. 10. And so what that's gonna tell me about the information about the problem is that first of all, the amount of cigarette consumption is decreasing and it's decreasing at a rate, uh, 10 billion, uh, year. So each year that goes by, there's 10 billion less cigarettes consumed.


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