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Epinephrine binding by receptors on cardiac myocytes increases rates of contraction; when it binds to muscle cells of the small intestine; it inhibits contraction W...

Question

Epinephrine binding by receptors on cardiac myocytes increases rates of contraction; when it binds to muscle cells of the small intestine; it inhibits contraction What explains these different effects?Cardiac muscles are stronger than intestinal muscles; resulting in stronger response_Epinephrine reaches the heart in higher concentrations than the intestines_Epinephrine binds G-protein coupled receptors on cardiac myocytes, and receptor- tyrosine kinases on intestinab cells:Cardiac myocytes have

Epinephrine binding by receptors on cardiac myocytes increases rates of contraction; when it binds to muscle cells of the small intestine; it inhibits contraction What explains these different effects? Cardiac muscles are stronger than intestinal muscles; resulting in stronger response_ Epinephrine reaches the heart in higher concentrations than the intestines_ Epinephrine binds G-protein coupled receptors on cardiac myocytes, and receptor- tyrosine kinases on intestinab cells: Cardiac myocytes have more receptors on their surfaces than do intestinal cells Epinephrine binds the same kind of receptors in both cell types; but there are different signal pathways in the cells.



Answers

Epinephrine binds to both $\beta$ -adrenergic and $\alpha$ -adrenergic receptors. Describe the opposite actions on the effector protein, adenylyl cyclase, elicited by the binding of epinephrine to these two types of receptors. Describe the effect of adding an agonist or antagonist to a $\beta$ -adrenergic receptor on the activity of adenylyl cyclase.

Let's take a look at this dress response hormones. Cortisol and have been effort. Let's start with epinephrine, so you may actually recognize epinephrine for with a different name. Adrenaline. So epinephrine or adrenaline is responsible for the fight or flight response, and this is a period where a organism is scared and they need to respond quickly to a threat. So this is a short term response, so epinephrine is responsible. It's the hormone responsible during a short term period of stress. What is all, on the other hand, is a glucose regulator, so it regulates the blood glucose levels in the body. And this is a hormone, a stress hormone that is responsible for long term periods of stress. So we have epinephrine, which is responsible for short term, and cortisol, which is responsible for long term periods of stress.

Over the course of the day, an individual can begin to get sleepy because of Adina scene binding to different Adina seen receptors. Typically, what happens is sigh click. A MP is broken down and by fossil diarist races specifically called P. D E s thes, these PD enzymes will break down. Sigh, click A and P two Godino scene mano phosphate during the fight or flight response. Epinephrine well interfere with the breakdown of cycling KMP to this Adina scene. Mano phosphate caffeine, however, blocks this thesis process and increases alertness and sleepiness. Bye binding to the dino seen receptors. So caffeine will act as an antagonistic to Adina Simona phosphate binding to the receptor. So when an individual ingest caffeine caffeine is competing with a dino scene, Monta phosphate in binding to the ad a dino seen receptors and that is how caffeine leads to heighten alertness and sleeplessness.

All right, let's look at how epinephrine has an impact on the liver. So epinephrine is also known as adrenaline and it's a hormone that provides the body with energy in a short term emergency type situation. So when you have an increase of epinephrine, it causes an increase in cyclic amP C a m P, which activates Pekka, which in turn fosters relates to enzymes. So we look at these two enzymes that are now activated. So the first one works to promote the process of glycogen degradation, where glycogen breaks down to glucose. And this is the activation of metabolism, which is in the liver where the glycogen is broken down into glucose. So that process is activated and the second enzyme works to inhibit the other process where the formation of glycogen from glucose occurs. So basically it works to keep the amount of glucose in the blood and that is available to the rest of the body as high as possible. So it makes more glucose and it stops the processes that turn glucose into glycogen. So overall you have an increase oh glucose in the bloodstream and this results in the muscles having more energy from the glucose that is in the bloodstream. And this is used in a fight or flight situation. Like we said before short term emergency, you're in a dangerous situation. You need to run away. You need that energy to carry your body away from whatever danger you're in. So the liver breaks down the glycogen into glucose. The glucose enters the bloodstream and the glucose enters the muscles, which gives them energy.

Okay. Want to answer this question. Let's talk about the the effects of norepinephrine in the body. Okay. More than norepinephrine is hormones secreted from the sympathetic vulnerable system that is involved in the fight in flight. Mhm. Response. Okay. What does it mean? Well, it means that for example when my lion he's chasing you, then we're going to use. Well this system particular is going to get activated in order to activate many, many processes in your body in order for you to to have success in escaping from this lie. Okay, for example, it is going to increase glucose in the blood in order for for it to be used for to produce a teepee energy and your muscles can continue getting Okay. Also is going to increase the hard wait, for example, in the cardiac output in order for a more blood to be delivered to your muscles. And you can like, okay, also, for example, it is going to decrease like that look flow to the GT to the cash intestinal tract. Because you're not going to going to you don't need to digest in what while you're or when you're being chased by a lion. Okay, So these are some effects from norepinephrine, like in response to the fight and flight response. So Option A says that africa is going to slower highway. This is false. Option a false ocean businesses. You listen cardiac muscle by sympathetic, parasympathetic, nervous. Okay, this is false because it is released by sympathetic nerves. Okay, option seizes causes potassium channels in cardiac muscle to open. This is also false because it is going to cost because it would cause let's see action potential and that's a very different. That will not cause that. Okay. Option. This is decreases a stroke volume. He's also false. Remember that stroke volume is all the blood that returns to the heart in order to be objected to the to the art artery. Okay. But as we we need to increase the heart rate. I mean the cardiac output then we are not going to decrease the struggle. You remember that the cardiac output is the same or is the result of the stroke volume multiply with the holloway. Okay. So I found out our party's going to increase when the stroke volume is increasing. Okay. Thing option eases calcium channels in cardiac muscle open and this is covered. Okay. Why? Because if more calcium gets inside of the of the card uh muscle, if more calcium ions get inside of the cardiac muscles, then there is going to be a high or a higher conductivity of the heart of the heart muscle. And is going to allow more cars that output to be took your particularly more blood flow to your muscles. Okay, so that option reception need


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