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39 38 3 infection You Which antibiotics 1 Vonseo 3 Yes No No, Yes; 1 Viruses class = V the H MN Procoroans 1 IV the anictooxia} 1 1 surprising? microbes the this sp...

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39 38 3 infection You Which antibiotics 1 Vonseo 3 Yes No No, Yes; 1 Viruses class = V the H MN Procoroans 1 IV the anictooxia} 1 1 surprising? microbes the this spectrum (ungi [ the 1 1 I E pue spectrum fungal easiest that make killed gets sick antibiotic is a to keep U 1 4 lot, HL itin target with 1 bacteria W otherwise are are aad few days drugs? resistant resistant 'beteast they should later kill they 1 them becamae wouldn't have come all microorganisms ancopportuandic needed pue

39 38 3 infection You Which antibiotics 1 Vonseo 3 Yes No No, Yes; 1 Viruses class = V the H MN Procoroans 1 IV the anictooxia} 1 1 surprising? microbes the this spectrum (ungi [ the 1 1 I E pue spectrum fungal easiest that make killed gets sick antibiotic is a to keep U 1 4 lot, HL itin target with 1 bacteria W otherwise are are aad few days drugs? resistant resistant 'beteast they should later kill they 1 them becamae wouldn't have come all microorganisms ancopportuandic needed pue 1



Answers

Calicheamicin gamma-1, $\mathrm{C}_{\mathrm{ss}} \mathrm{H}_{74} \mathrm{IN}_{3} \mathrm{O}_{21} \mathrm{~S}_{4},$ is one of the most potent antibiotics known: one molecule kills one bacterial cell. Describe how you would (carefully!) prepare $25.00 \mathrm{~mL}$ of an aqueous calicheamicin gamma- 1 solution that could kill $1.0 \times 10^{8}$ bacteria, starting from a $5.00 \times 10^{-9} \mathrm{M}$ stock solution of the antibiotic.

So we're given the information that one bacterial cell will be killed by one molecule off antibiotic So I can write one bacteria We'LL be killed Play one molecule off antibiotic Now we need to kill one times Tend to the port A bacterium Let miss we'll need one times tend to the bar eight molecule off antibiotic to kill one times delivery in Victoria Now we have to find out in what volume off the stock solution were given We will have this number of molecules of anti matic And if we can find that the the record falling on the antibiotic we'Ll be able to say how we can prepare a twenty five militar often Akwa solution of the antibiotic. Now, as you know that there's a relation between the number of malls and the number of Mollica. Lt's off substance. We have to utilize that to find out the number ofthe malls in which we will have the's number of Molly Cools off Andy Verity and using that number of malls will be able to find out what for Liam off the stocks solution we will require now from the from the affluent. Remember, We know that one mall ofthis substance. Um, Carrie six point zero two three Time Stand to the port twenty three molecule that men's, um, one times ten to the bar. Eight molecule will be carried by, um one times tend to the bar aid over six point zero to three times ten to the bar twenty three mall R If we just calculate this, we'LL have avello off one point six six times into the bar minus sixteen. So this is the number off malls off the antibiotic we require to kill one time standard of our age, um, sale of the bacteria. Now we have to find out in what fall on the stock solution. We'LL have this number of mall of antibiotic So the it's the concentration of the stock solution is given as five times tenderly poor minus nine moller or more par later. That means five times ten to the burr minus nine more is in one letter volume. So how many litter volume will carry thiss much number of moles? So one point six six damn straight to the bar minus sixteen mole is in one point six six times into the bar, minus sixteen. All four five times to the bar minus nine. Leader. Yeah. And when he was three point three, two times to the bomb miners. Eight litre. So this is the volume on the stock solution in which we have the required number off malls off the antibiotic which he need to kill one times ten to the bar. Eight sellem bacteria. No. Ah, since we have to prepare quantify militar acqua situation that was have to convert the volume into later first So to convert the volume into later s o the convert the volume into militar we just happened Multiply this by thousand and this will give us the volume off Stock solution record as so Trip planned three toe times ten to the poor miners eight later Time one thousand Millie Later it delivers trip on tree tow times ten to the four minus five militar. So this is the volume of the stocks solution in militar which you require, um tto kill one diameter the word bacterial cell. Now to prepare twenty five militar ac was solution of the centre party. What we have to do, we have to take it going to find militar arlen where flask in which we'LL have to take three point three two times ten to the minus five ml off the stock solution and we'LL have TTO and what are up to twenty five ml two to make tackles solution on the antibiotic off twenty five which will be able to kill one times ten to the port itself off and, uh, bacteria

Hello, everyone. I hope all is well. And today I will be helping you with the 40 of problem of the chapter 19 problems. And so 40 is essentially asking what kind of evolution is antibiotic resistance? And this is a huge one. It came up a lot in last chapter, but for this one, Um, what you want to know is that you have antibiotics, right? If you have this one and then you have the first strain. Correct, and it is attacking. Um, and it is attacking these, right? These are the ones, the ones that will not survive across L. A. Red. But these two right here will survive, and those two will go on and they will multiply to another amount of these ones. And then there will be another strain that comes along. And it will Why the's wants out, and then those ones will multiply. So it's natural selection, which is why it is B. So I hope you find the syllable and I'll be a great day. Thank you.

Okay, so for this problem, it's a bacterial food requirements. So we have three different. Um, so we have three different species, and so a, uh we're gonna do X is being species one. Why is being species to and Zia's being species three and then we have three different types of food, so each one of these foods is going to be a different equation. So for the first type of food bacteria one needs 1.3 units for food to they also need 1.3 and then for the last widening 2.3 units. And then the second species needs 1.1 units of the first food, 2.4 of the 2nd and 3.7 of the third. And then for the last species, they need one point. Ah, 8.1 units of the first food, 2.9 of the second food and 5.1 of the third food were the total units of food. For the 1st 1. 16,000 second is 28,000, and the third ist 44,000. Someone has set up a matrix, and then I'm gonna multiply everything by 10 just that way, there's no decimals, and then I'll just add a zero at the end of each And if the solution portion of this matrix. So then said of 16,000, I now have 100 60,000, 280,000 and 440,000. So if I use a calculator matrix calculator, I discover that X needs 2339.7436 units. Ah, why is gonna be 10,128 0.2051 units and Z would be 224.3590 And so it is wanting to know how many of each species could be maintained at its environment. So those would be the amounts, um, of each bacterial species, so round up or down, as needed.

Okay, So in this one, we're looking at Clostridium difficile. Now, this is a infection that occurs in a, um, human bio, the gut. And so whenever we're answering questions, where do we start? How do we answer any question? Well, we need to know what the questions asking. So after reading it, the question here is at the bottom. It says, Why do you suppose microbiota transplantation is so effective? So it was to know what's going on when we do a transplantation of microbiota that makes it effective in this particular case right here. So we're talking about again a human gut infection from a specific bacteria, and it So what do we need to do? So, like I said, we we've figured out what the questions asking us. And now we need to filter out and useful or bad information, uh, and also determine what the question is telling us kind of what clues isn't giving us. So here, um it tells us the leading cause of hospital associate ID. Gastrointestinal illness. That's that's background information. That's not something that's going to help us answer this question necessarily, um, typically treated with a course of antibiotics, but it Rikers in about 20% of cases. Ah, and there difficult to eradicate because the existence of the two forms of bacteria. So while this is not directly important, it does tell us what we need to be looking for When were either researching this or looking back through the are notes. So we have two different forms. One of them is susceptible to antibiotics. The other one is not. It is resistant to antibiotics. So the fact that part of this species of bacteria is, uh, resistance to antibiotic in one form kind of tells us why this particular infection can become so aggressive. So then it goes on to tell us that microbiota transplantation on, then tells us what that ISS I can't resolve over 90% of recurrent affection. So basically, once these infections start recurring, this new experimental treatment, um, is very effective and curbing it, whereas antibiotics tend to actually make it worse. And so we're gonna go into that here just second. So what do we have going on? So we need to go back and figure out what words we don't know. Like microbiota. What is Microbiota? Microbiota is microorganisms of a particular habitat site or geological period. Now, we're not talking about geologic time here. We're talking about the human gut. So the habitat or site of this microbiota is our got in the microorganisms that exist in it. Okay, so was simple fight. Let's look at what the gut looks like in terms of ah Microbiome of microbiota, if you will. So in our gut would got we're going to simplify this. We've got three their friend bacteria that exists. Okay, so in this case, X is gonna be our Clostridium difficile. This is the one that exist in two different forms, but in this case, we're just gonna leave it as the next. All right? So a lot of times, what happens is is you get an infection somewhere else in the body and your doctor prescribes you a antibiotics. In this case, we're gonna represent the antibiotics, is a square, you take the antibiotics, and what happens is is while it treats the infection that you have, it also effects your microbiome in your gut, and it can kill off these other bacteria. So what happens is you're left with an over abundance of the Clostridium difficile. Now in this case. You know, all of a sudden you have this gut infection and you go back to the doctor, and their next answer is Oh, well, you've got an infection. We should probably give you some more antibiotics. So they give you another course of antibiotics, kills off some of it. But again, because some of these, um, sports sport form of this bacteria are resistant to antibiotics were left again with an over abundance of this same bacteria and such. The infection continues. So what do we need to do here? Well, obviously, antibiotics are not the answer, so we don't want any more antibiotics. So what do we want to do? Well, at this point, because we have this doctors have figured out Well, what if we took normal, healthy bacteria and reintroduced the back end? Okay. And this is where the fecal microbiota transplantation comes in. So we go into the hospital. Our gut looks like this. The doctors say Okay, we're gonna introduce this bacteria and this bacteria back to your gut. So these come in. And like with any living organism, you need nutrients. You need things that help you survive. Nutrients, vitamins, minerals, water, What have you to survive? So by reintroducing the selfie bacteria creates a competition for those nutrients, and it kills off some of that bacteria. So now, with having the transpoint of this healthy gut bacteria right here, it reduces the effect on the number of the cost Iridium, the fissile. And so now we have a healthy gut bio magainin without the use of any more antibiotics.


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