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P. Porter,"Westernizing' Women's Risks? Breast Cancer in Lower-Income Countries," New England Journal of Medicine 358 (2008): 213-216....

Question

P. Porter,"Westernizing' Women's Risks? Breast Cancer in Lower-Income Countries," New England Journal of Medicine 358 (2008): 213-216.

P. Porter,"Westernizing' Women's Risks? Breast Cancer in Lower-Income Countries," New England Journal of Medicine 358 (2008): 213-216.



Answers

Cancer Research An article on cancer treatment contains the following statement: A 37$\%$ 5-year survival rate for women with ovarian cancer yields an estimated annual mortality rate of $0.1989 .$ The authors of this article assume that the number of survivors is described by the exponential decay function given at the beginning of this section, where $y$ is the number of survivors and $k$ is the mortality rate. Verify that the given survival rate leads to the given mortality rate. Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

All right for this function. We are looking at the volume of tumors. So part a just asked to find the tumor volume 240 months that were just plugging 240 into the V of T function. Part B says assuming the shape of the tumor is spherical, find the radius of the tumor in part A and then they give us the volume formula for a spear. Eso It's asking us to take our answer in part a and then use the volume equation to find our, um so to solve this equation, um, I'm gonna multiply it by three over four pi on technically both sides. That's going to get rid of the 4/3 in the pie. Um, and then I'm left with R cubed and then to get rid of the Cube, I'm gonna cue brute. So we are going to type all of that into the calculator, and it gives us a radius of 0.973 centimeters for part C. It says if a tumor of size 0.5 centimeters cube has been detected according to the formula, how long has it been growing? What does this imply. So, um, this is basically giving us a volume, and it's asking us to solve the equation for time. All right, So if you have access to a graphing calculator, um, you can use your graphing calculator thio help you solve this equation. Um, and you can do that graphically. Or you can do that from your solving application in the algebra section. And when you do that, you get t to be, um, around 213. There's a couple of decimals afterwards, Um, and so that is in months. So that's why you're textbook says if you divide that by 12 you get 17.75. So that's about how many years around 18 years is how long the tumor has been growing. Um, okay, So for part D, it asked us to find the limit as l approaches infinity of the tea and interpret this value, explain whether this value makes sense. So for part D, when you find the limit as l approaches infinity, um, you find the answer to be 6.4 centimeters. So we're looking as time gets infinitely large. What is our volume kind of gonna level out to and that would be 6.4. And then it's ask us to explain whether this value makes sense. Um, so I would say yes. This makes sense. If you think about a tumor, it's only gonna be able to get so large. Um, so it makes It makes sense, in my opinion, that 6.4 centimeters that's a pretty large tumor, that at some point it's just going to come a start. Stop growing. Or it's going to unfortunately, um, in the life of the person when it gets that large or spreads to other places. Um, okay, Part E asked us to calculate the rate of change of the tumor at 240 months and interpret. So, um, party is asking us to basically find the derivative of the volume at 240. And when we do that in the calculator, we get 0.282 and that would be centimeters per year month. Sorry, um, and interpret that value. So I would say that a good interpretation would be that the volume of the tumor is increasing because the prime of 2 40 is greater than zero

Okay, So this question is asking about a study done where the users of world contraceptives have higher rates of cervical cancer than nonusers. Um, and it's concluded that basically the pill causes cervical cancer. Um, support is asking if this is a observational study or controlled experiment and it is an observational study. And the reason for this is because, um, the investigators aren't actually putting any kind of treatment on subjects and look in the effects. They're just observing data that's already around them on there, just analyzing data that they see around them. They're not actually putting any kind of treatment on subjects and the king and the effects. So it's definitely an observation city. Um, part B is saying, Why did the investigators adjust for age education medals? That is. And that's to avoid what soon as confounding factors and confounding factors are essentially outside factors that may affect what you see, the man back your results. And if they exist and you can't really be sure, you they might have affected the results. And you can't really be sure that in this case you couldn't really be sure that use of oral contraceptives has in effect on rates of cervical cancer. If you don't adjust for age education, parasite is cause, you know, just for these, then these factors might really be the cause behind the rates of cervical cancer. Not actually, um, the use of oral contraceptives. Parsi is asking, saying women using the pill, we're likely to differ from the user's on another factor, which affects the risk of cervical cancer. What actress that And that factor is gonna be sexual activity. Um, because women who use it are more likely to have, um, more so pill users tend to have more sexual activity, which leads to more things like HPV sharing stuff like that, and that causes increased rate of cervical cancer. Um, so this is this is just saying that it might not necessarily be this pill that's causing this cervical cancer, but instead the type of person who's using this pill just has a lot of sex. And that's what's causing uh, cervical cancer. A party is saying where they include into the study, justified by the data, Answer yes or no and explain briefly on no, on. The main reason for this is going to be that the, um the difference is the difference. Joan was not between like Brandon groups. The whole thing wasn't really randomized enough to really justify that conclusion. And also, um, and also Parsi. Um, let me write that, Percy, because again, impressive. We already established that it might just be sexual activity that's causing these different rates of cervical cancer, not the pill, so that this entire thing can't really substantiate or support. The investigators claim that, um, world contraceptives cause cervical cancer. Hope that felt.

From 16. Here is about this, uh, HPV virus, which includes an E six protein which binds to our P 53 protein. Right? And so what we know about the p 53 protein is that it acts. Is it like a functional checkpoint? Right, And it will. Damage will find damaged DNA are detected, and it will hope the cell cycle, if needed to either repair or trigger a pop to asses right Cell death. So this one p 53 its main role is is to sort of repair damage cells bore or to listen. Cell death if cell is too damaged to Dubuque, Ate right and so. But what do we know that about cancer is just generally speaking, they tend to create Ah, excessive. So growth. Okay. And so typically, if if a if a cell is going to be damaged in a way that would cause it to over grow the p 53 ah would either repair that that mutation or trigger the cell death, right, But but e six will bind to the p 53 causing the cancer. So it's causing this influx of cell growth. So we're trying to assume, then what sort of relationship to these two have? Well, so we're looking for a relationship that sort of inhibits inhibits p 53 to allow for this cell growth to accumulate. That's what. Where we get the cervical cancer. Okay, so if the six activated p 53 then it would, uh, most likely caused this a pop toast. This right. If people tease who was activated, uh, you wouldn't really get this cancer in any way, Okay? So similarly, if e six protected p 53 same thing that means that the p 33 is active and can regulate this assault growth and stop it from overproducing. Okay, Now, if it was mutated, well, mutation is is pretty vague. Perhaps that could inhibit it, but it might ah, mutated in a way that so you gave it. Um we can't make it more efficient. Right? So that's not quite right. But if if the binding marks people, he threw for degradations. And now now we don't have this repair factor than that sort of allows the the E six virus two to mutate and damage the DNA in a way that causes excessive growth for cancer. So the answer we're looking for here is going to be D

This question. Um, looking at Chapter three Problem, too. And this question access for the explanatory and restaurants variable and also to determine if they are categorical or quantitative. Very boom. So we're going to start with the explanatory very room. These are verbals that are changed or maneuver to see the effect that he has on the response variable, also called the independent variable. But for the sake of this chapter, we're going to stick with explanatory and response variable on Looking at the question stem. It talks about treatments for breast cancer, and the most common treatment is the removal of the breast. And so, looking at that, we could tell that removal of the breast is the explanatory. Very well. That explains the response variable, which will be looking at shortly. And so the explanatory variable will be the treatment. Or, if you want ruling flow off, the rest reach also translate to treatment. And so the other part of this question axes. If it's a categorical variable or quantitative variable, it's very important to know the difference between a categorical and a quantitative variable. Ah, categorical variable is a variable, just like the name it categorizes people into different groups. So you receiving the treatment or are you not receiving the treatment? That is an example of a categorical data? Are you getting your breasts removed or are you not getting your breasts removed? That's an example of the categorical variable. And so, looking at this treatment a removal of breast, you could tell that it is a category. Cool variable. Another way to look at business to compare to, Ah, quantitative variable on a continued variable is very cool. Reek of physically off physically. Take the average of their numerical data that we could take the average off. And so patient is getting the brush removed, getting your brush rules and getting your breast not removed. It's not something we can take the average of it's not new miracle. And so the response variable in this situation is the like the questions them stated earlier. We're trying to see if the treatment, which is the removal of the breast and the effect that he had on how long the patient survive post treatment or post surgery. And that is the restaurants variable. It's what we're trying to measure is what we're looking at. So it doesn't change how long this patients leave post surgery. It's not going to change. What is being changed in this in this situation is the kind of treatment that is being given. Hence the restaurants. Very womb is how long the patience leave host surgery, which can also be translated as longevity of creations. And is this a quantitative or Kathy Gurukul? Variable? Like I said, like I said earlier, a quantitative variable. It's a very well done, a fine numerical value, and we could take the average off. For example, if Patient A lives for five years and patient delis for six years, we could take the average of this to five and six a numerical values. So which this makes the restaurant very windy. Situation Kwan that status. This is the answer to this question problem, too.


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