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Bioluminescence in fireflies is result of the conversion of chemical energy (in ATP) to light energy: Specifically. ATP. Oz and the enzyne luciferase cause luciferi...

Question

Bioluminescence in fireflies is result of the conversion of chemical energy (in ATP) to light energy: Specifically. ATP. Oz and the enzyne luciferase cause luciferin mg can be collected from about 15.000 fireflies' ) to be oxidatively decarboxylated to an electronically excited orluciferin Relaxation of the latter t0 its ground slale is accompanied by the emission of light ( fluorescence) . Subsequent regeneration reactions then recycle oxyluciferin back to luciferin. Draw the two resonance

Bioluminescence in fireflies is result of the conversion of chemical energy (in ATP) to light energy: Specifically. ATP. Oz and the enzyne luciferase cause luciferin mg can be collected from about 15.000 fireflies' ) to be oxidatively decarboxylated to an electronically excited orluciferin Relaxation of the latter t0 its ground slale is accompanied by the emission of light ( fluorescence) . Subsequent regeneration reactions then recycle oxyluciferin back to luciferin. Draw the two resonance structures of the CB of oxyluciferin which either oxygen bears the negative charge: CO-H ATP. 0z luciferase COz HO HO luciferin oxylucyfermn



Answers

Fireflies Fireflies emit light of wavelengths from $510 \mathrm{nm}$ to $670 \mathrm{nm} .$ They are about $90 \%$ efficient at converting chemical energy into light (compared to about $10 \%$ for an incandescent lightbulb). Most living organisms, including fireflies, use adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as an energy molecule. Estimate the number of ATP molecules a firefly would use at $0.5 \mathrm{eV}$ per molecule to produce one photon of $590-\mathrm{nm}$ wavelength if all the energy came from ATP.

So the first question we have to ask ourselves is, how did all of these species obtain the ability to have that bioluminescence phenotype out of all the different ways that a, um, phenotype can emerge out of a species? The one that's coming to mind for me is DNA mutation. Over time, the DNA must have had a must have occurred, some sort of mutation that allowed the species to become bioluminescent. Now, in this problem, there are species uses the bioluminescence in two different ways. One of them use it for meeting the brighter and more, um, apparent. This phenotype is, the more attractive the mate is to the other partner, which propagates this phenotype. And it maintains it, um, over time. Within the population, the other use is through countered elimination. And in this situation, the species is using bioluminescence to camouflage with within its environment. And this makes the species mawr, um, in the words of Darwin, just more fit for its environment because it's able to hide and become, you know, more protective against predators. For example, Now, when we think of the mechanisms that both of these, um logically end up with so that the phenotype continues. The mechanism for the meeting Gina type is non random meeting. Okay. The reason for this is because the species aren't mating with partners. Willy nilly are arbitrarily. They are choosing a mate specifically on their ability to buy a luminous and on the other side, the counter illumination. This is due to environmental variants. Yeah, this means that the species and the individual is more adaptive to its environment. And because of that, the phenotype is continues to propagate strongly within the species. So although thes, two different, they're two different reasons for bioluminescence. And they are, um, as the book says, Cove urgently evolved, which means they evolve separately from one another. They both nonetheless, um, came from the same source a DNA mutation, and they both are used in different ways to propagate the species.

Looking at the equation that we craft in the other three formulated in last problems we congratulate on our graphic calculator coming up, but the graph that looks like this

So we are to graph our function over 30 seconds from the fireflies. Bioluminescence. We got that. The function was that Y is equal to 25. Sign of pi over two times. T minus one plus 25. And we're trying to graft this over 30 seconds. So we're going to do is we plug this into a graphing soft you later graphing software or any other? Um, wait a graph this. But we're just going to graphing this over 30 seconds and this graph will hit its peak. It's on the periods. Four seconds for this graph. So we're to graft this. It should look something like this should restart about every four seconds. This one should be a 20 24 28 and then should start to go down at 30. And this will represent the function above from 0 to 30

Okay, so this questions on fireflies, and we know they're admitting from 5 10 to 6 70 nanometers, and they are 90% efficient from converting this energy and toe light. Um, and so are converting their chemical energy into this light. And so, um, we know they use 80 p. And you want to know how maney 80 p molecules for use if it caught If it they get 800.5 evey per molecule, Um, at 5 90 nanometers. Okay, that's really interesting. So we have 0.5 e v her molecule, and we want to know how many molecules to produce. One foe tiene That's interesting. Oh, I said, Just thing that you can think of five molecules producing one photon um, you think? I mean, it's probably a maybe it's a probabilistic process, because how could five molecules sort of come together? Um, I mean, or maybe it's some chemistry between all of the molecules. Actually, that's probably that's that's my guest for what it is, um, would be some interesting behavior, but, you know, I'm open to learning about it. Okay, so 0.5 evey per molecule. So we want to figure out how much energy we need, um, for one photons, and we want to get that any be so energy in a photonic HC over Lambda. But that answer will come out in jewels if we use all s I units here. So we know that there is 1.6 times 10 of the minus 19 jewels per e v. So we're gonna have to multiply by this. So let's go ahead and calculate that, Um, so each time, see 6.6 times six times in the my 34 ST having create divided by 5 98 times 10 to the minus nine, and we want to take that and divide by 1.6 times. So the mice 19. And so I got 2.1 TV, and so you can see that you would need, um I guess to reach this threshold of one photon, um, you would need five. At least five. So five photons just I mean, because photons number is quan ties. So you can't be like 2.1 divided by five and get whatever decimal whatever. Four point whatever number it it would be, um, So you need at least five times


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