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Healthy microbiota (normal flora) Is thougnt t0 de inputtot to investigate if normal microbiota found in the Researchers designed an experiment growth of a pathogen...

Question

Healthy microbiota (normal flora) Is thougnt t0 de inputtot to investigate if normal microbiota found in the Researchers designed an experiment growth of a pathogen called Shigella . They set up cultures of intestines would Inhibit with either Escherichia coli or Enterobacter aerogenes. Over Shigella dysenteriae assessed the numbers of Shigella by plating on selective media that various tImes they would = only 'Brow Shigella: The results are given below. Number ol Shlqello LmL Shigella alon

Healthy microbiota (normal flora) Is thougnt t0 de inputtot to investigate if normal microbiota found in the Researchers designed an experiment growth of a pathogen called Shigella . They set up cultures of intestines would Inhibit with either Escherichia coli or Enterobacter aerogenes. Over Shigella dysenteriae assessed the numbers of Shigella by plating on selective media that various tImes they would = only 'Brow Shigella: The results are given below. Number ol Shlqello LmL Shigella alone Shigella with Shigella with Time Assayed Ecol Eaerogenes 3X 10' / ml 3 X 10' / ml 3* 10 / Ml 5X10' 3X 10' / mL 5X 10? / mL 1hour mL 4X10' ml 2X10' / ml 4 X 10" / mL 2 hours 3X10s / mL 5X102 ml 3 X 10' ml 3 hours 2X10' / mL 3X10' / ml 2 X 106 mL 6 hours 3X10' / mL <10 / mL 3 X 106 / mL hours 4X10G mL 4OLm 4X1OG mL 1Qhours What is the reason for growing Shigella alone? B. Using ONE graph and the graph paper provided, draw the growth curves for each. C Which organism would you consider as a possible probiotic against Shigella?



Answers

Growth of E. coli Bacteria $\mathrm{A}$ type of bacteria that inhabits the intestines of animals is named $E .$ coli (Escherichia coli ). These bacteria are capable of rapid growth and can be dangerous to humans- especially children. In one study, $E .$ coli bacteria were capable of doubling in number every 49.5 minutes. Their number after $x$ minutes can be modeled by the function $$ N(x)=N_{0} e^{0.014 x} $$ (Source: Stent, G. S., Molecular Biology of Bacterial Viruses, W. H. Freeman.) Suppose $N_{0}=500,000$ is the initial number of bacteria per milliliter. (a) Make a conjecture about the number of bacteria per milliliter after 99 minutes. Verify your conjecture. (b) Estimate graphically the time elapsed until there were 25 million bacteria per milliliter.

So for this question, we know there are new Shal. Value of bacteria is 500,000 and then you have our equation times E to the zero points here 14 x. You So for question or for parts, they were asked to find a connector after 99 minutes. And so we know guts. We can just for 99. And so we know that amount of bacteria is about one point 199411 times 10 to the X. And so then, for part, we were asked to find our amounts where we have Let's see, we have 25 million bacteria. So we have 25 123123 Yes. So this is about work. We have 25 million bacteria, but you can see it's approximately 275 minutes. So these are answers

We're looking at a toxin from Clostridium before engines, and the C terminus of this toxin binds to cloud in four but not cloud and one and the N terminus will then insert into a cell membrane and former hole that kills herself. So if we remove the n terminus and we're just looking at the C terminus, we're incubating an epithelial sheet that expresses cloud in one and four with this C terminus, and we find that when we do so, clouds and four disappears. But the cells aren't dying. The the tight junctions, the number of strands in them, is decreasing and they're less highly branched. But if we wash away the toxin, they recover back to the wild type. So we have some questions about this part. One is how is it that there are too tight junction strands remaining, even though all of cloud and four has disappeared. So remember that we're not just expressing climbing before also applied in one which the toxin doesn't mind too. So this has to be because of cloud in one so cloud and one must be unaffected e clouding four, including one aunt forming diners, or, if they are somehow only the clowning for is affected, and can one can somehow still do its job? Most likely? Most likely, the toxin is binding. Cloud inform on Imus, and that's stopping them from working without affecting cloud and one B. We noticed that the toxin will work if added to be both lateral side of the sheet, but not be a pickle. How can this be? Well, if it's only working on the base lateral side, that must be where its target is. So the binding sites of sites of plowed in four must be on the basal lateral sides. So maybe clouding four completely is on the basic lateral side. Maybe all of the climate for monomers are delivered to that side. Maybe there's an orientation going on where all of the clouds and four all face one direction, and that would mean that all their binding sites would be on the same side. So that's two possible ways this could happen. But this this is the reason it only works if we soak the basal lateral side. And, of course, um, it's not penetrating through the toxic VM. It's not penetrating through the tight junctions to get people said. Because they are tight junctions, they prevent the movement of molecules through them, so they're staying on the basal lateral side.

Okay, So in this one, we're looking at Clostridium difficile. Now, this is a infection that occurs in a, um, human bio, the gut. And so whenever we're answering questions, where do we start? How do we answer any question? Well, we need to know what the questions asking. So after reading it, the question here is at the bottom. It says, Why do you suppose microbiota transplantation is so effective? So it was to know what's going on when we do a transplantation of microbiota that makes it effective in this particular case right here. So we're talking about again a human gut infection from a specific bacteria, and it So what do we need to do? So, like I said, we we've figured out what the questions asking us. And now we need to filter out and useful or bad information, uh, and also determine what the question is telling us kind of what clues isn't giving us. So here, um it tells us the leading cause of hospital associate ID. Gastrointestinal illness. That's that's background information. That's not something that's going to help us answer this question necessarily, um, typically treated with a course of antibiotics, but it Rikers in about 20% of cases. Ah, and there difficult to eradicate because the existence of the two forms of bacteria. So while this is not directly important, it does tell us what we need to be looking for When were either researching this or looking back through the are notes. So we have two different forms. One of them is susceptible to antibiotics. The other one is not. It is resistant to antibiotics. So the fact that part of this species of bacteria is, uh, resistance to antibiotic in one form kind of tells us why this particular infection can become so aggressive. So then it goes on to tell us that microbiota transplantation on, then tells us what that ISS I can't resolve over 90% of recurrent affection. So basically, once these infections start recurring, this new experimental treatment, um, is very effective and curbing it, whereas antibiotics tend to actually make it worse. And so we're gonna go into that here just second. So what do we have going on? So we need to go back and figure out what words we don't know. Like microbiota. What is Microbiota? Microbiota is microorganisms of a particular habitat site or geological period. Now, we're not talking about geologic time here. We're talking about the human gut. So the habitat or site of this microbiota is our got in the microorganisms that exist in it. Okay, so was simple fight. Let's look at what the gut looks like in terms of ah Microbiome of microbiota, if you will. So in our gut would got we're going to simplify this. We've got three their friend bacteria that exists. Okay, so in this case, X is gonna be our Clostridium difficile. This is the one that exist in two different forms, but in this case, we're just gonna leave it as the next. All right? So a lot of times, what happens is is you get an infection somewhere else in the body and your doctor prescribes you a antibiotics. In this case, we're gonna represent the antibiotics, is a square, you take the antibiotics, and what happens is is while it treats the infection that you have, it also effects your microbiome in your gut, and it can kill off these other bacteria. So what happens is you're left with an over abundance of the Clostridium difficile. Now in this case. You know, all of a sudden you have this gut infection and you go back to the doctor, and their next answer is Oh, well, you've got an infection. We should probably give you some more antibiotics. So they give you another course of antibiotics, kills off some of it. But again, because some of these, um, sports sport form of this bacteria are resistant to antibiotics were left again with an over abundance of this same bacteria and such. The infection continues. So what do we need to do here? Well, obviously, antibiotics are not the answer, so we don't want any more antibiotics. So what do we want to do? Well, at this point, because we have this doctors have figured out Well, what if we took normal, healthy bacteria and reintroduced the back end? Okay. And this is where the fecal microbiota transplantation comes in. So we go into the hospital. Our gut looks like this. The doctors say Okay, we're gonna introduce this bacteria and this bacteria back to your gut. So these come in. And like with any living organism, you need nutrients. You need things that help you survive. Nutrients, vitamins, minerals, water, What have you to survive? So by reintroducing the selfie bacteria creates a competition for those nutrients, and it kills off some of that bacteria. So now, with having the transpoint of this healthy gut bacteria right here, it reduces the effect on the number of the cost Iridium, the fissile. And so now we have a healthy gut bio magainin without the use of any more antibiotics.

So in this podcast fastly, we're taking a look at Colorado, So this is a disease caused by a certain bacteria called vibrio Cholera. Um, results in several undesirable side effects and the mode of transition. Transmission of the disease is consuming contaminated water and food, so we'll take a look at the first part. So the cholera toxin that is released by the bacterium will bind to the intestinal cells called under sites on DSO. The active toxins activate the G protein and locked the G protein in GTP bound form. Therefore, identity site places continually stimulated so off. Long activation off dental eight cyclists as a result of having the cholera toxin present, increases the production of C A M P. So in a fast step of the epinephrine pathway, Theoden late Psychlos is involved in conversion of ATP into C A. M. P. And therefore cholera toxin increases the production of CMP in the intestinal cells. So we have is a teepee that becomes C A M. P using a desolate Psychlos. And so now we can take a look at the second part here. Eso according to the info that we have the major symptom of cholera includes the loss of water as well as the sodium irons any plus. So the excessive amount of CMP in the intestinal cells caused an influx of sodium irons, along with water from the infected and the crowds. So this loss is juice of excessive production of CMP. So the normal function off RCMP in the intestinal cells is to regulate sodium ions and water channels. Therefore, the CIA MP regulates the permeability of sodium on Walter eso just taking a look at this final part here. So diarrhea is the major problem here. And so the treatment for cholera is nothing but restoring the lost fluids and the electrolytes to the body. As you know that we saw a loss of water and sodium, so this process is simply called rehydration. So if rehydration has not carried out in, the body will get totally dehydrated due to the toxic effects of the cholera toxin, and the person may very well die


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