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Four solutions of an acid dissolved in water are sketched below as if under microscope so powerful individual atoms could be seen The same vol solution is shown in ...

Question

Four solutions of an acid dissolved in water are sketched below as if under microscope so powerful individual atoms could be seen The same vol solution is shown in each sketchRank the solutions by the strength of the dissolved acid_ That is select under the solution of the strongest acid, 2 under the solution of the next acid, and so on.Note:=HzOSolutionSolution 2(strongest acid)(weakest acid)Solution 3Solution

Four solutions of an acid dissolved in water are sketched below as if under microscope so powerful individual atoms could be seen The same vol solution is shown in each sketch Rank the solutions by the strength of the dissolved acid_ That is select under the solution of the strongest acid, 2 under the solution of the next acid, and so on. Note: =HzO Solution Solution 2 (strongest acid) (weakest acid) Solution 3 Solution



Answers

Consider two separate aqueous solutions: one of a weak acid HA and one of $\mathrm{HCl}$ . Assuming you started with 10 molecules of each:
a. Draw a picture of what each solution looks like at equilibrium.
b. What are the major species in each beaker?
c. From your pictures, calculate the $K_{\text { a }}$ values of each acid.
d. Order the following from the strongest to the weakest base: $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}, \mathrm{A}^{-}, \mathrm{Cl}^{-}$ . Explain your order.

So generally the strength of an acid is determined by the position of its ionization or dissociation within the reaction. So we have a church A. At H 20 That's an equilibrium with eight minus the conjugate base at H 30 plus the conjugate acid. So a strong acid is one for which the forward reaction is in favor, meaning that most if not all of the acid is D. Protein ated. A strong acid can be described as an acid where the conjugate bases a much weaker base than the water. So in this case the water molecule when the competition for the H plus irons. So, for example, if we have acetic acid, HC two, age three to this is dissolved in water and the resulting solution can conduct an electrical current. But this is only very weakly. So that is that the aesthetic asset is a very weak electrolyte, meaning that it only has a few irons present. So for example, we have HC two H three oh two At H 20. We got a church 30 plus odd C two H 302 minus. So the reverse reaction will be in favor. So we will only have partial association here. So the aesthetic acid is a weak acid. And so when acetic acid molecules are placed in water, almost all of the molecules will remain under associated. So this tells us that acetic iron, which is C two H 302 minus, will be a very effective base. It very successfully attracts H plus ions within water. So as a result, this means that acetic acid remains largely in the form Of the HC two H 302. So we acid is one where the reverse reaction will predominate as we have discussed. So most of the acid originally placed in the solution is still present as the protein ated form on the left hand side, So weak acid will only to associate to a very small extent. So we can define a concentrated acid, so the acid in which the numbers of the iron per unit volume are more than the acid. Then the acid is said to be concentrated. If we was to define a dilute acid upon dilution of a concentrated acid, the number of irons per unit volume will decrease. And as a result of this, the acid in which the number of irons per unit volume are reduced down the acid. Then the acid is said to be dilute, so that is part A. That we have covered. Next we've got part B. So the order basic strength is a minus H 20 C. Out minus. This is because a strong acid or base is one that is completely ionized. In other words associated. So strong acids have weekly conjugated basis. Weak acids have quite strong conjugated basis, so a minus is a conjugated base of a weak acid. CR minus is a conjugated base of a strong acid to have strong CB conjugated base, uh, weak acid, and we have a week conjugated face a strong acid.

Okay in this problem or given four acid solutions, and they ask us to find the highest pH. Now the determine which one has the highest Petri obviously have to determine what is high and low. PH and I use this up there, too. So high. This no arrow to show low now with these depend on with the definition of Ph. Really, is it is that it measures that association, both association of an H A Lal U and now A J is just any acid acid attached to a hydrogen. Now the association of this molecule would lead to this breaking apart and being a separate hydrogen and HPE plus and in a minus the acid. So in high ph solutions, what happens is that this this'd association happened at a lower rate, said association. This looks and in lower cave solutions, that association is more so. One easy way to measure how high or low the dissociation is assistant to look at the age plus concentration, and that's essentially what the formula for Ph does. Ph is, of course, the negative log off the concentration of each plus. Now this means that as each plus concentration goes up as H plus concentration goes up so the pH goes down. So that means that hi pH is have a low age plus concentration. And remember, this bracket in convention just means concentration and low pH ones have a Hi H plus concentration. And because concentration, let's just say calling is measured by the moles, as in the number of molecules over the volume, we can look. Take a look at our different diagrams and determine which of these different beakers has the highest concentration of H plus. And because all of our volumes are the same, we only have to look at the difference in number of molecules of H plus. So let's start with Logano. Diverts now eager one. We have two molecules of H plus solicitor say two more H plus and in bigger too. You have four more beach post now. Bigger three weaken spot Onley, one molecule of dissociated acid to make one molecule of H plus and a bigger four. We again see to. So if we refer back to this chart that we have, we can see that we want to find the higher pH. So this top row obviously and that would be low concentration and we go back to our definition of concentration. We see that we want less moles for our volume. And remember, we all have the same volume. So the one with the least molecules of H plus will be our one with the highest pH and we can see that that clearly is weaker. Three. And that would be our answer.

Okay. And this problem were given four different acids and with the determine which one has the highest pH to do this, obviously we first have to decide what's high and low. PH well. These are determined by something called association. This is what happens one and h a molecule. And this is just any asset attached to a hydrogen brakes apartment water to become H plus molecule and in a minus molecule. So in high pH solutions, there is lo association and in low pH solutions. There is high association that had determined with high or low association. But we have to look at the amount of a molecule called H Plus one of the end products, and that's actually the definition of Ph itself. PH with the negative law off the concentration H plus. And that means that the concentration of H plus is inversely related. PH, meaning something. The hot huge has a low concentration H plus and something with low pH has a high concentration of H plus. And remember these brackets around H plus just mean concentration. The hatchery thing out. What concentration is well, concentration is equal to the number of molecules and something inside of a certain volume. In our case, every single beaker seemed to have the exact same volume. So all we need to look at it's a number of molecules are working with. Well, let's start with a bigger one and bigger one. We can discount to molecules H Plus. This means that half of the molecules have dissociated into separate age plus and a minus because we can also see there's two models that state as a together each a. I am eager to we can count four months of age plus in this case, every single h a multi ulus broken apart into a separate H plus in a mine smoke. This means if we go back to our chart, this means a very low pH. Because there's such a high concentration H plus well, Speaker three. We can only count one molecule h plus moussa molecules in this speaker stay together as an H a molecule. This would mean a relatively hi pH because most of the multi don't associate which refers to load association no and assets four, we can count two more monsters of H plus. Now, if we go back and evaluate our overall definition of pH. We know that we want to look in this, throw the high ph room, so we want to look for no dissociation and the concentration. Well, the lowest concentration here refers to if we go back to our concentration definition, the least number of molecules inside volume and then our beaker with the least number of molecules of H plus in this case, Speaker three. There's only one multi of H plus in this involved, which means the lowest association and the highest ph.

In this question, which bicker represents a strong monopolistic acid. In the given diagram, a strong mono protic acid are strong mono. Prateek, a seed dissociates completely. Mhm dissociates completely in water and produces and produces equal number of Yeah, produces equal number of Istria plus ions and acid and ions. No acid molecule, no acid molecule will remain in the solution. Mhm. This is represented by the this is represented by the bigger in the middle. The middle bigger has four H 20 plus science and four acid announced. No molecule is there. So the bigger in the middle represents a strong monopolistic acid and the bigger at the left represent the left, bigger represents and associated acid molecule. There are four and associated acid molecules and write bigger. Mhm represents a weak acid. Some acid molecules are mm dis associated and some are not. So the right, bigger represents weak acid and bigger in the middle represents a strong mono protic acid.


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