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1)i) Contrast between each pair of the following: Viscosity and kinematic viscosity b. Fluidity and mobility Single point and multiple point viscometers Thixotropy ...

Question

1)i) Contrast between each pair of the following: Viscosity and kinematic viscosity b. Fluidity and mobility Single point and multiple point viscometers Thixotropy and Anti-thixotropy Class I & I productsii)Draw the rheogram of each of the following fluid: a. Newtonian liquid b. Plastic liquid Pseudoplastic liquid d. Dilatant liquid Pseudoplastic liquid with thixotropic behaviouriii)Explain the principle underlying the following equipment: Falling-sphere viscometer Searle-type cup-and-bob vi

1)i) Contrast between each pair of the following: Viscosity and kinematic viscosity b. Fluidity and mobility Single point and multiple point viscometers Thixotropy and Anti-thixotropy Class I & I products ii) Draw the rheogram of each of the following fluid: a. Newtonian liquid b. Plastic liquid Pseudoplastic liquid d. Dilatant liquid Pseudoplastic liquid with thixotropic behaviour iii) Explain the principle underlying the following equipment: Falling-sphere viscometer Searle-type cup-and-bob viscometer iv) Mention each of the following: Advantages of cone -and-plate viscometer b. Applications of thixotropy in pharmaceutical dosage forms v) Explain with a pharmaceutical example each of the following: Pseudoplastic flow b. Dilatant flow



Answers

A simple viscometer consists of a thick-walled glass tube with a 0.5 -mm bore. The tube has etched marks at one-quarter and three-quarters of its height. The tube is clamped with its lower end dipped in a container of the liquid to be tested. A pipette filler is used to draw liquid up the bore past the upper mark. The pipette filler is removed from the tube, and the time taken for the liquid meniscus to drain between the upper and lower viscometer marks is measured with a stopwatch. Using this viscometer to measure the drain times for two pure liquids $A$ and $B$ at the same temperature gives 3.45 seconds for liquid $\mathrm{A}$ and 4.64 seconds for liquid B. a. Which liquid is more viscous? b. Which liquid has weaker intermolecular forces? c. Would the measured drain times be longer or shorter at a lower experimental liquid temperature?

Okay, um, we're gonna talk about viscosity. Factors that affect discuss ity and which of four substances should have the greatest viscosity and the effective temperature on viscosity. So let's be again. First of all, what factors affect viscosity? Well, temperature effects just viscosity. Um, the structure like if it's polar versus non polar, the structure can affect viscosity. For instance, if it's like twisty, if it's got a lot of kinks and curls in it, then it will be harder to slide past. So something that's all twisty wouldn't kinks in it will have a higher viscosity. Oh, let's see what else to spend. What else affects this? Casady, um temperature, the structure, the polarity. How large? Really large molecules tend to have higher viscosity, so really large molecules have pretty high viscosity. And, boy, if I think of anything else, I'll tell you what they are in a moment. So our goal is going to be theirs are factors. I'm going to give you four substances and then we'll say which has which is the most viscous. And then we'll talk about temperature and Wisconsin, check my camera good and go to the next page. Okay. Are four substances are water. Um, ethanol, ethanol, wrong ethylene glycol and glycerin. So we're gonna take a look at these and see which one is gonna have. The in our opinion will have the greatest viscosity. And if you're familiar with these compounds and I am familiar with these compounds, I know this is a thick, gooey, oily kind of think, so that's going to have the highest viscosity. But let's look at why water is a highly polar molecule with a low molar mass. It's got a molar mass of about 18 grams per mole. Pretty little, and it's got a very high polarity. And due to its small size, it's pretty viscous. Um, ethanol is C H three C h 20 H. Let's do a super quick sketch of that. And it is also polar its polar, but not not really polar that like water, not super polar like water. But it is polar due to this. And since this molar mass is about 46 grams per mole, and if I do a side by side comparison, um, this is the least viscous of these two. So if I was going to rank these, I would rank ethanol has a lower viscosity. Ethan Water. Okay, let's keep moving. Let's look at ethylene glycol, and I think I'll switch colors for ethylene glycol. Oh, and ethylene glycol is h o See age, too. C H 20 H. And let's do a super quick sketch of this. Put my always just there and my age is here. You'll notice a couple little I twisted it twists and turns around here, and the molar mass of this is about 62 grams per mole and its polar. It's got a couple different polar, and little cause it to twist. Well, that should have been a judge, So this is more the more viscous of the three that we've looked at. So this one, the ethylene glycol, which you might know his anti freeze is a little bit more biscuits. And last but not least, let's look a glycerin and glycerin has an O age, and then it's got a C H two and then a ch within a wage. And then it's gotta see age, too, with another a wage. And let's do a quick sketch of that C. C. C. Each one of my sees has an O age group on it. So it's got three areas of polarity, then hydrogen fill in the rest of the spots. Around these, my Moeller Mass is about 92 grams per mole, and this is even more twisty and turny and larger. So this one glycerin, we'll have the greater viscosity. Glycerin has the greater vis Scott. Great est viscosity. Okay? And our last question is, how does temperature affect viscosity? So if we increase the temp, that means we're increasing the kinetic energy. And if we increase the energy kinetic, average kinetic energy, we're gonna literally have more motion. More motion means it will be easier for this. The particles to slide past one another so increasing tamp decreases viscosity this Casady, okay?

So we have our two chemicals here, we have our pendulum mean up top and come in here and we can see that pendulum in both has a higher viscosity as well as a higher boiling point. Um this is primarily because of what we know as dispersion forces, essentially, we can think of all the electron within these um these carbon back change here as just swirling around here, you have the density of electrons and as they switch back and forth they'll create a partial negative and a partial positive region where there will be a weak interaction between other versions of this. Right? So if you have another pendulum mean, mhm and its electrons are switching around two, you'll get your partial negative, partially positive over here. You get some sort of weak interaction between these two. Um And so as you can see if you have more electrons, you have more surface area swishing back and forth, Your dispersion forces are going to be higher. So why this estonian here has a lower boiling point and the lower viscosity is essentially it has weaker sloshing around dispersion forces. Right? It doesn't have as much electron slashing here. So this partial positive and partial negative, it's going to be going to be significantly less and there's going to be significantly less overlap of these chemicals

So we have our two chemicals here, we have our pendulum mean up top and come in here and we can see that pendulum in both has a higher viscosity as well as a higher boiling point. Um this is primarily because of what we know as dispersion forces, essentially, we can think of all the electron within these um these carbon back change here as just swirling around here, you have the density of electrons and as they switch back and forth they'll create a partial negative and a partial positive region where there will be a weak interaction between other versions of this. Right? So if you have another pendulum mean, mhm and its electrons are switching around two, you'll get your partial negative, partially positive over here. You get some sort of weak interaction between these two. Um And so as you can see if you have more electrons, you have more surface area swishing back and forth, Your dispersion forces are going to be higher. So why this estonian here has a lower boiling point and the lower viscosity is essentially it has weaker sloshing around dispersion forces. Right? It doesn't have as much electron slashing here. So this partial positive and partial negative, it's going to be going to be significantly less and there's going to be significantly less overlap of these chemicals

Hi, everyone. This is a problem based on effect. Off temperature? Yeah. On the viscosity. On any good? Yeah. And guess Let us hear the explanation for liquid. Um, space viscosity off. Yeah, Liquid is due Toa All right. Uh huh. Compressive force north inter molecules and transport off mo mentum. All right, increase in temperature. Uh huh. Yeah. Causes decreasing. Yeah. Yeah. Okay. Viscosity off the liquid, right. What? Yeah, because indicates molecules are very closely packed. Sold. We can neglect draws photo momentum. Okay, Soul. It is only due to Where is the foot's been trying to preach off temperature off liquid inter molecular distance increases. Right? Sold. Who has seen force between molecules? Uh, yeah. Also, decreases on it. Results in, you know, decreasing. Discuss city or curriculum for guests. Increase in temperature. Yeah, causes are increasing. Disclose city off, Bess because yeah, in case off gas cohesive force. Oh, is negligible. Yeah. So viscosity off. Guests. Is due toa transfer off. Yeah. Uh um Well, yeah. Off momentum as temperature increases the molecular moment. Um, transfer Also increase. Yeah, because root mean square. Where the city off the gas molecule. His directly was not toe square. Root off temperature. Yeah. Thanks for watching it.


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