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A special fullerene (Co) derivative; CoPhsCl (Ph phenyl) , undergoes at room temperature fully irreversible electrochemical reduction resulting in rapid dissocialio...

Question

A special fullerene (Co) derivative; CoPhsCl (Ph phenyl) , undergoes at room temperature fully irreversible electrochemical reduction resulting in rapid dissocialion of the C Cl bond:CooPhsCl CooPhsClCoPhsCL CoPhs -Enc ~1.0 V (vs SCE)The radical CaPhs is known to undergo (WO sequential reversible reductions:CooPhs ~ CooPhsCoPhs at E12 ~0.1 V (vs SCE) CoPhs? Ex =-13V (vs SCE)Explain how many electrons are consumed when slowly passing the initial cathodic wave of parent CcaPhsCL marks)Draw carefu

A special fullerene (Co) derivative; CoPhsCl (Ph phenyl) , undergoes at room temperature fully irreversible electrochemical reduction resulting in rapid dissocialion of the C Cl bond: CooPhsCl CooPhsCl CoPhsCL CoPhs - Enc ~1.0 V (vs SCE) The radical CaPhs is known to undergo (WO sequential reversible reductions: CooPhs ~ CooPhs CoPhs at E12 ~0.1 V (vs SCE) CoPhs? Ex =-13V (vs SCE) Explain how many electrons are consumed when slowly passing the initial cathodic wave of parent CcaPhsCL marks) Draw carefully the cyclic voltammogram of parent CoPhsCl TWO concomitant cycles between +0.5 V (starting potential) and ~1.5 V (turning point) for slow scan rate, using the above information. Label clearly all the yoltammetric waves seen during the cycles_ marks) Propose different experimental conditions that would allow t0 see the initial reduction of CoPhsCl as reversible cathodic wave and explain your choice. marks) Describe brielly how the concentration of free Cl-ions liberated by the exhaustive irreversible reduction of CoPhsCl could be determined potentiometrically by using simple silicate glass (membrane) electrode? N. B Remember that glass electrode is suited for Na" or Ag Ions_ marks)



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The movements of single motor-protein molecules can be analyzed directly. Using polarized laser light, it is possible to create interference patterns that exert a centrally directed force, ranging from zero at the center to a few piconewtons at the periphery (about $200 \mathrm{nm}$ from the center). Individual molecules that enter the interference pattern are rapidly pushed to the center, allowing them to be captured and moved at the experimenter's discretion. Using such "optical tweezers," single kinesin molecules can be positioned on a microtubule that is fixed to a coverslip. Although a single kinesin molecule cannot be seen optically, it can be tagged with a silica bead and tracked indirectly by following the bead (Figure $Q 16-3 A$ ). In the absence of ATP, the kinesin molecule remains at the center of the interference pattern, but with ATP it moves toward the plus end of the microtubule. As kinesin moves along the microtubule, it encounters the force of the interference pattern, which simulates the load kinesin carries during its actual function in the cell. Moreover, the pressure against the silica bead counters the effects of Brownian (thermal) motion, so that the position of the bead more accurately reflects the position of the kinesin molecule on the microtubule. A trace of the movements of a kinesin molecule along a microtubule is shown in Figure $\mathrm{Q} 16-3 \mathrm{B}$. A. $\quad$ As shown in Figure $Q 16-3 B,$ all movement of kine$\sin$ is in one direction (toward the plus end of the microtubule $) .$ What supplies the free energy needed to ensure a unidirectional movement along the microtubule? B. What is the average rate of movement of kinesin along the microtubule? C. What is the length of each step that a kinesin takes as it moves along a microtubule? D. From other studies it is known that kinesin has two globular domains that can each bind to $\beta$ -tubulin, and that kinesin moves along a single protofilament in a microtubule. In each protofilament, the $\beta$ -tubulin subunit repeats at $8-n m$ intervals. Given the step length and the interval between $\beta$ -tubulin subunits, how do you suppose a kinesin molecule moves along a microtubule? E. Is there anything in the data in Figure $\mathrm{Q} 16-3 \mathrm{B}$ that tells you how many ATP molecules are hydrolyzed per step?

Explain why administration over the finger presses faster the penetration off benzene. It's red, our Union Isles, which are intimidated for wolf perverts. That's the residents structures which have posted charge it troubles mixed through the venal group it presents conjugation with May Fennel Group, which can go for them in varying place is the spice of charge. Also, inter prayer to Ortho positions off there, in which leads to the additional stabilization off the Iranian iron and therefore a foster reaction and a very similar situation. It is, yeah, and that's an addition to the radicalization of price of church between those positions. But this the same is benzene itself.

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