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Suppose that the difference between protein with a wild-type allele (Pwt) and protein with a mutant allele (P") Is one amino acid in position #12 of the protei...

Question

Suppose that the difference between protein with a wild-type allele (Pwt) and protein with a mutant allele (P") Is one amino acid in position #12 of the protein chain. The wild-type allele has a sequence of 5'CAT; the mutant allele has sequence of 5'CTT,In Pwt the amino acid In position #12 is Select |In Pm the amino acid in position #12 Is Select |

Suppose that the difference between protein with a wild-type allele (Pwt) and protein with a mutant allele (P") Is one amino acid in position #12 of the protein chain. The wild-type allele has a sequence of 5'CAT; the mutant allele has sequence of 5'CTT, In Pwt the amino acid In position #12 is Select | In Pm the amino acid in position #12 Is Select |



Answers

In protein synthesis, the selection of a particular amino acid is determined by the so-called genetic code, or a sequence of three bases in DNA. Will a sequence of only two bases unambiguously determine the selection of 20 amino acids found in proteins? Explain.

The discussion wants us to determine how the amino acid sequence will change. Um, when there are mutations on the template strand of DNA, um, and they've listed out some mutations. And to make this easier, I've roped in the out the sequence for the template strand. Um, rode out the corresponding emery name and translated that to the associate ID amino acids. So a trans version at nucleotide 11 changes. Um, e t a to T. C A. Which when, um it is really a Mornay becomes a you which encodes Syrians. So this results in a, um, change and the fourth amino acid from a spar Ginny into Syrian in a transition at nucleotide 13 results in, um, a premature stop code on. So it changes from this to this, um, and when it is described, it becomes you A which is a stop code on. So it is a nonsense mutation, and a single deletion at nucleotide seven is a frame shift mutation. Um, and it changes all amino acids after, um, training, um, to Alan in Isil losing spare Jean tyrosine and isil losing. Um, and there was no stop code on in this, uh, mutated protein given the frame shift, um, so it will be longer than the original. And, um, in following entrance version at nucleotide 15. It is a change. Um, there two possible trends versions. So the original is G T. T. And it can either be a or G t. G. However, both, um, when transcribing, translated in code histamine and on insertion mutation of three nucleotides TG after nucleotide six results in the duplication of the second amino acid. So there are, um, just us. There's there would just be a second, um, a three inning after, um, this first screening, Um, and a transition intimately tied nine is a transition which changes you see, two g t. Which changes the, um which changes the amino acid from glazing to glue to me. And this occurs at this, um, third amino acid. So these are how these mutations on the template strand of DNA, it would affect the amino acid sequence

Okay, so blood type is a type of co dominance, right? And so if we have our precursor Gene, um, the I A and I b Leal's will separately undergo transcription and translation to produce the enzyme A and or enzyme be depending on which of those air present. Um, Now, the H antigen is on which, and I'm a n n's. I be act rights. If we have our each Auntie Jen showing up, then once that shows up, depending on what genes Air President will get some enzyme a possibly some enzyme be or, you know, neither. Okay. And then the individual with the anti gen wog on the surface. Mhm. We'll end up being type a blood. So we get a introgen, possibly Booth. I'm just gonna abbreviate antagonism Ants, um, could have to be Auntie Jen or nothing being produced, right? And so the once that occurs, the individual that has only a antigens on the surface will end up being type a. The one that gets both, uh, antigens on the surface end up as type A B, the one with just the B antigens showing up on the surface and being type B and then. Lastly, new antigens means type O eso just to go over one more time. We were starting with, you know, a precursor gene. Okay. And the illegals, they're gonna go through transcription and translation to produce thes enzymes, depending on which genes are present. Are like what, Your wheels, Aaron, that gene. Um, but there's no protein synthesized using just illegal. So it's when this h Auntie Jen pops on eyes. When the enzymes started to be produced in service H antigens shows up on the gene. Um, and then it the enzymes are able to be produced or not. If you're a typo, and when says enzymes are produced, then the individuals with the, um enzyme A goes through the process of forming the androgen. Likewise, for the b introgen, um, or if you're type of the h antigen, just remains that modified and matures to form the to become typo. Right? And so then this process creates our blood types

So this customer wants us to give an example of a mutation that could change the original amino acid sequence to the mutant, as well as an example of an intra genic suppressor mutation which restored the amino acid. As you can see, the mutation was from Argentina serene, and the suppressor mutation returned the amino acid back to Argentine. Um, so the change of Argentine disappearing If you look, a translation table could be due to, um, an amino acid change, specifically a trans version in either the first or the third code on position. Um, changing them, too. One of these two code owns encoding Syrian, Um, and the ah suppressor mutation would be a trends version wherever the first trans version did not occur. For example, if the trans version was from the third coat on position in Arjun ing, um, for example, from adding to your cell than an additional trans version mutation at the first code on position, um, from Adam, thine cytosine would restore the amino acid. Um, so the suppressor mutation is a trans version wherever the first trans version did not occur. Um, in either the first or third coat on position

Hi, today's little video is um going to consider the idea of mutations. What effects can a mutation have on a sequence of amino acids? A mutation is just a change in the DNA code. And obviously the DNA code tells the cell to build proteins. So any change in the code um has the potential to affect the proteins that the cell builds, causing them to not build a protein or to build the wrong protein or potentially to build a better protein. Um So we're given a sequence of DNA 17 bases. We're told that this sequence codes for a series of amino acids. And so the first thing that we have to do, The first thing that we have to do is we have to know what this sequence yields in terms of an amino acid sequence. So we have to I kind of assumed that we're going through the process of transcription and converting this DNA sequence into a messenger RNA sequence. And so that the T. The thing I mean and the DNA would code for add meaning in the RNA. So we would have the first code on would be A A. So right here is our first coat on. Let me pause and right just what that is. So all we need to do is just go down the list here and convert each Each set of three DNA bases into the corresponding RNA basis. So side of seen adnan timing is going to become wanting here is still happening and go down we'll do this for each one and save save some time and do that. Okay, so once we know what our RNA code ons are, we can look at the chart in the book until the amino acid that will be coded for by each of these code ons. And so we know that um a a a codes for the amino acid lysine. Yeah. So the very first amino acid in the sequences lie scene. We know that G. U. A. Is going to give us Valine. G U C. Is also going to give us Valine just abbreviating you can find all this in the book. If you don't already know it, see you A is going to give us a loose scene and see you G is going to also give us loosen. Now we we only have two bases left. That's not a complete code on. So we can't tell for sure what amino acid that will be. So. Well it's not worry about that. And so there's our sequence slicing Valli and Valli and losing, losing. Yeah. Okay. So then the question deals with various types of mutations or changes. So the first thing we're asked is what if we take this very first base this timing and instead of the timing that is an ad mean. So we take this tea and we substitute an A. There. So you would have A. T. T. And that's going to give us R. N. A. Code on of you A. And we know that you A. Is the signal to to stop. And so if you made that one substitution this probably Pepsi I would never proceed would never be made because that signals to sell do not do anything. Um So that would be a big change then. It were asked what would happen if we took and we go down to position 17 And instead of A C. We put A. G. There. Well we don't know what that would do because that's not a complete code on. It's not enough information to help us out. Then we're asked what if we go between the 4th and the 5th basis and we put a. T. Right there. So come over here between four and five and we put A. T. So what we would have in that position instead of the C. A. T. We would have C. T. A. And that would give us a code on of G A. U. And G. A. You would give us an amino acid of a Spartak acid. So the very second amino acid instead of becoming Balian would be as far tick acid. However, that's not the only change because then we would the next code on would not be the same either because we added one in there. And so you would have to go down the whole line and make a whole new set of code ons to determine which amino acids would come next. We won't take the time to do that. But you kind of see how that works Then we're asked what if we go down in between the 12th and 13 bases and we insert a whole new um set. So so we come in right here Between the 12th and 13th and we put A G. T. A. Into that position. That's going to give the code on of see A. You which will give us an amino acid of histamine. So what the effect of this would be to add a history Dean into this sequence. So it would be listening Valley valley and losing histamine losing. We don't know if that's going to change the policy peptide to any significant degree. But we do know that would add that amino acid in there just by adding um an extra Set of three bait 3 bases of DNA. And then we're asked what if we deleted the very first DNA nucleotide? In other words if we came in to our first sequence and completely deleted that T well again that's going to cause us to have to start our whole sequence over. So instead of T tt we would start with T. T. C. And then we would have to go to the next one would be a TC instead of C. A. T. And so then you would go through the whole process again of finding what amino acids these bases code for. And and it would be a different sequence. So you can see that just small changes in the DNA code can completely change the amino acids that are put into place. Which gives you different potentially gives you different policy peptides and different proteins. Uh huh. Thanks again for watching And for using new more aid.


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