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Explain how the immune system can respond to millions of different nonself antigens using only a few hundred antibody genes....

Question

Explain how the immune system can respond to millions of different nonself antigens using only a few hundred antibody genes.

Explain how the immune system can respond to millions of different nonself antigens using only a few hundred antibody genes.



Answers

Why do antibodies isolated from the same individual show a variety of constant domains?
a. The antibodies were synthesized in response to infections by different pathogens.
b. The antibodies were transmitted as the result of passive immunity.
c. The antibodies have different specificities of antigen binding.
d. The antibodies belong to different classes of immunoglobulin molecules.

The function. What function does the diversity of the variable region of antibody helping form the variable region of the antibody is this portion that is responsible for binding a very specific antigens. As the name implies, variable means that it changes. So they're each antibody is unique in that it has a variable region of it that has a very high space of the city for once, but very specific indigent. I'm so here in the fiction of the DNA of a stem cell that will produce a B. So there many, many variable regions and one is chosen so that that antibody that is produced here as a protein has a very high specificity for one specific androgen. So a states that so obviously this would create high diversity. As the question implies, eso es states that this diversity helps in communication of antibodies with other computer opponents of the immune system. So there's not really so much about communication with other components of the immune system as the um as it is about specificity when we have such s so many different types of variable regions and what the purpose of that is BC said it helps with antibodies to function with very low affinity and specificity know it has high specificity. Um, see, Steve havin enables many different antibodies to be made that all have different specificities of finding. Yes, a plethora of antibodies could be created because there are, I believe, uh, there's many different variable regions as indicated year and in a unique combination with the joining region and the constant regions, create millions of

Okay, So this question asked, How does an antibody Monaco by specifically to one Angie, but not to another. So obviously an antibody is why shape And it has the variable region known right here that is the antigen binding region, and then the constant region, which is costing the maternal antibodies. So we are specifically trying to answer the question of how is an antibody so specific to one indigent, So a seats that is due to the presence of a specific vantage and binding side. So, yes, this sounds true. Um, specificity of antibody finding is due to this very Thea Auntie gin binding region right here, which changes throughout all antibodies on B says it is. Do the constant Regent. No, that has nothing to do with anti androgen specificity. Antibody specificity, See, states. It is that it is due to the diversity of variable region. So this question is not very clearly worded. But the variable region is distinct for each antibody and the reason why it can it is able to bind specifically toe one is because of the specific antigen binding side it has the diversity of the variable region is the reason why We have so many diverse types of antibodies that could find to all different types of indigenes. You know, we have that entire spectrum of antibodies. Second, do that. But the reason why one ant urgent bind specifically to one one antibody binds to one specific antigen is because of the indigent binding site, and D says it is due to the complete antibody structure. So the Y shape. While it is the shape of the antibody, it really is tthe e um specific antigen binding site and the specific Auntie Gin and accepts that really accounts for antibody specific specificity, not the entire antibody structure.

B cells recognize intact indigents is shown here. Yeah, be so in buying to the anti Jin's on bacteria. In contrast, um, T cells recognize Britain's off and teachers importantly, debate that we mean and And you'd representing himself. This is shown by the diagram here where, um, this is a p stuff, and this isn't and representing. So the antigens present think so? Takes up, um, proteins from the environment. And, um, it is protein is the great good, um, by the Proteas in the endo's, um and then subsequently the protein friends. Oh, and then carry it to the surface. Two off the present thing self on mh seem all accused, and this is presented to the Hazara receptor. The T So So, therefore, this is pinky difference. Oh, with respect to the MP drones that be so in key cell by where be so, buys impact contagion. Arrestee cell. Um, buying the fragments off indigenes present the fighting and he dreamt presenting so

Here asked what the function of MHC antigens are. So mh Cesaire basically major hist o compatibility, um, complexes. And essentially, they code a particular receptor inside the cell in order to allow antibodies to recognize him. So the question here asked War, the genes that encode these antigens so terrible this is because of antibodies here are going to have to variable regions. One of them is going to be the short chain and the other one is going to be the long chain. And these bowl essentially make it distinguished themselves essentially and then the last between each other.


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