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Three genes (A, B & C) have recombination rates of A-B 0.05; A-C = 0.15; B-C = 0.11. What islare the most likely order of the three genes? B - C - A C -A -B A -...

Question

Three genes (A, B & C) have recombination rates of A-B 0.05; A-C = 0.15; B-C = 0.11. What islare the most likely order of the three genes? B - C - A C -A -B A - B- C B - A - C A -C - B

Three genes (A, B & C) have recombination rates of A-B 0.05; A-C = 0.15; B-C = 0.11. What islare the most likely order of the three genes? B - C - A C -A -B A - B- C B - A - C A -C - B



Answers

In the genetic cross $A a B b C c D d E E \times A a B B C c D d E e,$ what fraction of the offspring will be heterozygous for all of these genes $(A a B b C c D d E e) ?$ Assume all genes are unlinked.

Okay. In order to answer this question, we have to only mix the old the elites from one gene with old alleys from the others. For example, in case of A A. B. B. C. C. This is question one. We have to mix, they will be eight with B. And then with C. And then with the other C. Then A. With this B. And then we should see and we see we are going to make a three diagram in order to get this like easier. But in this case who have almost cycles for the three jeans and then the only committee is going to be a. B. C. Okay like with a letter Now for question #2 or big question B is electricity goes it is almost like a dominant and it is heterosexual here. So we're going to make a decision. I am a branch starting and more retirement. It is A here and A here then be as this almost goes. Then we're going to put it just be okay. And he would have to a little so C N C C N C here and the possible release are going to be a B C, A B C, A B C in a li see, these are going to be DLS the possible that meets for this organism. Okay, now, let's go for question number three. Or questions. See it is, I hate to say it was a it is almost like a dominant B and almost like a sec. Okay. A as we have almost like a spirit, we're on this half B here in the C series. Almost I was here to see N C. So that means they're going to be A B C and E B C. Okay, These are going to be that. Um, it's for this organism. And finally, question for it is because I was for the three genes. Okay, This is going to be a little larger Here. We have A then B and B. Here to B and B. Then C. N C. Okay. And you were going to have all the Elise all documents. Yeah, cheers. It is. Then this then this then it is. We're just like mixing in a sequence. Okay. Uh huh. With the letter A. And lower case for all of them. So these are going to be all that. Um, it's for this organism. And this is the answer for the question.

So in this question, we're told that there's an EC one generation, Um, and in the F one generation, all of the individuals are of a hetero zika's at Tetra hetero Zika's genotype. So that means that there are four different folios that are being tracked and that every single one of them, um, is Petro's itis for those four different wheels. So we are. We can say that it's a little a big a little B or big. Be it'll be big. See little C, Big d little teeth. And since those air that's the only genotype that is found in that F one generation. Um, because they probably crossed Hamas, I guess dominant with Hamas Argus process of individuals They only can have these heros, I guess. Home Bob Spree. Then we know both parents actually have fit big A little a day. Could be it'll be Dixie D. And so, using the rules of probability, um were asked to find the probability that their offspring will be certain Gina types. So, you know, let's let's do a generic punnett square here. Just, um, so that we can keep in mind how how this works. So let's use uh, P for instance. So or how about Hubble X? You know, we'll use X hair. Let's say big X walks Big X, little x, and this is just to keep in mind how hetero zegas, um, cross what the Gina tiqiq ratios and probabilities are. So you end up with one Hamas, I guess dominant in four. And you end up with two hetero zegas individuals and four and you end up with one Hamas, I guess. Possessive in four. So the Gina typical ratio is one to one, this one being the dominant Hamas, I guess. This being hetero zegas and this thing, um, the recessive Hamas, I guess. Okay, so we need to keep that in mind. We can also express this as one and four and we can express this is one and two. And this as one in four. This is sort of, um this is a simplified version of this. Okay, so now, using the rules of probability, let's look at the first. Oh, the first offspring genotype and figure out what the probability that that offspring would occur. So yeah, Hamas. Agus for all Hamas, I guess. Process it for all these. Come the wheels and let's let's see, So in orderto have that Hamas, I guess. Recessive Leo. That's a one in four chance And, you know, saying for the B And it would be saying for the sea and saying for the D. And we know from the rule of probability that to find out the probability that independent these independent events will occur simultaneously, we actually multiply the probability that they will occur individually by the other individual probabilities. So multiplying all of that out, we end up with one over 256. So assuming these individuals are, you know, maybe they're fruit flies in one in 256 of their offspring. Um, we'll have this all homos, Legace, process it wcha, uh, Gina type. That's the probability. Okay, so let's move on. How about to be? Here's this probability. Yeah, and then moving on to be, um, B says that would be a headers, I guess, for all the traits. So basically they look exactly like their parents. They have all hunters legacy for all the trees. So there's a one in two probability for hetero zaius. Each petreaus, I guess. Oh, well, So that's the individual probability for each Alil, since they all are independently assorted, um, and so to find whether they, what the probability is of this occurring simultaneously will deploy it all together. When we come up with one in 16 so 1 16 is the answer would be more. Do you see? So STI says all the offspring happened to be homeless, I guess. Dominant. So every single one of these are not all the offspring do this particular Osprey happened to be The home is a a dominant. What's the probability that that occur? So one and four that anyone, individual, anyone alil will be Hamas, I guess. Dominant right? And that's true for every single one of these Air Leo's they independently a sort so that these air all just the individual probabilities for each event to find out the simultaneous probability we multiplied out together and we are left with one in 256 again. Eso that's the same is if you were to have all recesses, all right, and let's look at D. De has an offspring that is hetero zaius for a almost. I get dominant for the 80 obvious receptive for seeing and hetero zaius for the okay, so to be headers Legacy. That's the one in two chance to the Hamas, I guess, is one in four chance. There's another one in four chance. How does ideas? It's a home to change. You multiply all that together in We're left with one and 64 to now let's okay, e e shows us, Ah, headers, I guess. Individual for a or headers, I guess that a almost, I guess, dominant. Be and see. And Hamas I get successive at D. So again here is that this is a one in two chance that anyone Julio will our anyone accommodation will be headers like this one in four chance that anyone combination almost like this. So it doesn't matter if its dominant or recessive it's a one in four chance. And so then, to find the probability that all occurred simultaneously multiplying the individual profit probabilities in my left with one in 128 probability. So it's much more likely that we'll have an individual that is hetero zegas at all. Leal's or low Sigh, um, or that will have one that has two headers. I Gossett ease somewhere than it is that will have, uh, you know, one that is homo zaius, recessive for everything. For Hamas, I guess. Dominant for everything. Or even that they'll be homeless, I guess at any three places. So there we

The explanation off. The solution is that that de hybrid cross is a cross between yeah to individual differing and two different characteristic traits. For example, across off a pea plant with yellow and around seeds and a P plant with a green and wrinkled Syria is a di hybrid cross. In this seed, shape and color are the two different threads. No, a cross between a BB and a small Abe results in old the hat row zegas offspring. That is a B B in F one generation. This F one. How does they got reserves in the production off four types off the Zimmer's that a capital small be small, a Capital B and small a small B, but the number of the A, B, A, B and A B damage not to 4 to 3 or four has the option. B, C and D are incorrect. UPS and B, C and D are incorrect. No, if there is no gene linkage, then in Mhm di hybrid cross between a capital, a capital be capital B and small. A small a small be small B which have capital a small A capital B small B, as there had toes. Zegers have one offspring. The the um it's produced from the Afghan individual would be one capital a capital B one capital, a small a capital B and one capital, a small B and one small small B. Does the ratio off Afghan jammers that will produce have to offering will be one ratio, one ratio, one ratio one has The correct answer is option A. So this is a complete explanation of all the part that which one is correct, which one is incorrect and the reason behind is also expand here, please go through.

Okay, so we're still on heredity and Mendel's laws. And here we were, given that two genes, um, A and B are linked. So that means that they segregated together instead of independently. And so first part A has us, Um, describing the distribution of geno types and field types if we do a cross. So the parents we have our Hamas Agus. So we would have a big A big B for both eso. Since they're linked, I kind of treat them as one of your rather than a pair. Okay. And then we'll have the recessive version here. And so if we do the cross, um, we will get It's essentially doing a cross, um, with just one genotype rather than thebe diet Khyber across. You are used to Okay, But when we look at de gea types and FINA types, 100% of them are going to be Hamas. I guess are actually head Rose, I guess. Okay. And we'll express both dominant treats, um, on dime writing it a little bit unconventionally. More conventional would be It's like big a little a big be little B But by keeping it this way, it helps me remember that the genes are linked, which means there's traveling together and not being able. Thio be split apart in the gametes. So then we go into part B and that wants us to cross one of the F one generations. That's the hetero zegas with the recessive parents. So we'll take our F one with the excessive parent. Yeah. And so then we get on this top row a pair of the dominant Leal's and a pair of the recessive ones. The bottom is all excessive. Yes. Okay, so 50% our head rose. I guess they would express the dominant traits. And 50% are home Azia successive. So they express the recessive phenotype part C wants us to do the same thing, but with e dominant parents. Okay, so across the top we get home is a is dominant. Then across the bottom, we get headers. I gets dominant. Yes, Okay. And again, this was put up in 2 50 50 distribution. So we have homeless, I guess. Dominant. And headers, I guess. But in this case, the funeral type is 100% dominant. Okay, so that brings us to the last part D, which is What? Um, mental laws being violated in here, That's going to be the law of segregation. And now this lot of segregation. So, uh, see if I can spell. Okay, well, the segregation states that any of these genes are will basically not travel with another one. Okay, Says to Leal's for a characteristic will separate during the gametes and end up in different gametes. So according to a lot of segregation, this, like from our F one generation, this Abe, uh, this hetero sex version should be able to form gammy. It's of every combination. But instead, um, as this problem is, having us have linked traits instead, it could only form the game. It's of of two of them, right? So we're getting to Gambians instead of four. And that is what? Um, that's why this lot of segregation is being violated. Okay, And then that actually wraps up all the parts of this problem


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