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(a) How many atoms of the peptide bond lie in the same plane?(b) Which atoms are they?...

Question

(a) How many atoms of the peptide bond lie in the same plane?(b) Which atoms are they?

(a) How many atoms of the peptide bond lie in the same plane? (b) Which atoms are they?



Answers

(a) How many atoms of the peptide bond lie in the same plane? (b) Which atoms are they?

This is the answer to Chapter one problem number three from this Smith Organic chemistry textbook. And this problem asks us how many Covalin bonds are expected for each of these atoms. And so the remember remember the rule to determine that is going to be based on valence electrons. So in Adam, with 1 to 4 valence electrons is going to form that many Covalin bonds on Adam with 5 to 7 valence electrons is going to form eight, minus the number of valence electrons that it has CO Vaillant bonds. So, um, for a oxygen oxygen has six valence electrons. Uh, so it has six valence electrons, so it's between five and seven. So the answer is going to be eight minus six, uh, or two eso oxygen will form two covalin bonds. Eso next. Aluminum has three valence electrons, so it will form three co Vaillant bonds for C bro mean has seven valence electrons. So it will be eight minus seven or one Covalin bones. Ah, and then silicon has four valence electrons. And so it's going to form for Arco Vaillant Bonds. Okay, uh, and that's the answer to Chapter one problem number

This is the answer to Chapter one problem Number 23 from the Smith Organic Chemistry textbook on this problem gives us two molecules that we're told are, uh, I guess components of common sunscreens. Um, and in these two molecules, there are several carbons indicated in each On were asked to identify how many's hydrogen atoms our present around each indicated carbon on. And we're also asked what the molecular formula is for each molecule. Um and so this is the first problem where we've been introduced Thio the line drawing type of notation that use the organic chemistry. In my opinion, this is by far the best way to write any molecule under any circumstance, because it's it's the most condensed way. And once you are used to looking at it, it's the easiest way to look at a molecule and to see what type of re activities that might have what functional groups are present. Um, I think it's the best of the possible ways on dhe, so we should try to become used to looking at these these line drawings or skeletal drawings. They're also called, um, and so remember every, uh, the end of a line is a carbon or like a corner or junction of two lines is a carbon, um, and remember, unless otherwise indicated, the carbon is making four bonds. And so if it appears to be drawn with only two bonds, uh, then we can assume that it has two hydrogen ZX. It appears to be drawn. Only one bond. It has three Hodgins, etcetera, etcetera. So, for example, even though we're not asked about this carbon that I'm indicating here, it looks like it only has one bond s So we can safely say that the three bonds that we don't see are 200 Jin's. Okay, Um and so that's that's all that this problem really is. So if we start at the left and go left to right um, I guess I could have used this 1st 1 is my example. So it looks like this carbon is only bound oxygen us. So there are three hydrogen sze that are not shown, but they are there. Um, so then moving to the right. This next Corbyn, that's indicated, actually has zero. Hydrogen is around it, so it has a double bond to another carbon, a single bond. Thio yet another carbon and then a single bond to 1/3 carbon for a total of four bonds. Ah, and so there are no Hodgins. All of its four bonds are two other carbons. So the next carbon carbon immediately to the right has a triple par Pardon me? A double bond shown and a single bond shown. So there's three of its four bonds accounted for, So that leaves one bond to be taken up by hydrogen on dhe. Then the last indicated carbon in this molecule has three single bonds showed s so we can assume that it has one hydrogen. Ah, and that's a and so will follow of the exact same reasoning for B. S. O. Again moving left to right. This 1st 1 at the top of the ring has a double bond and a single bond, so that leaves one bond to be occupied by a hydrogen. I'm moving to the right. This carbon, you'll carbon on, I guess if you guys air reading this book in order, you have no idea what a carbonell is. Yet Esso car video is a carbon double bound to oxygen. Eso This next indicated carbon is part of a carbon eel. Um, and it has to bonds to other Corbin's and to bonds the oxygen for a total of four, which leaves zero to be occupied by hydrogen Sze. Likewise, the next carbon to the right eyes bound to four other carbons. So it has zero bonds to be occupied by Hydra Jin's on the last carbon in this molecule appears to be bound only to one off carbon. So it has three bonds to be occupied by Hydra Jin's, so three ages. Okay, I mean, so the other thing that we're asked to do in this problem is to identify the molecular formula for each of these molecules. And really, To do that, all that you need to do is, um, Count carbons, Oxygen's and hydrogen Sze. Um, if it helps, you can go through and draw in every single hydrogen at least until you get good enough at line drawings to just know where they are. So a is gonna be C 18 c 18 each. 26 03 Um and then be is going to be C 20 h 22 03 c 20 each. 22 03 on again to get those formulas, you would just have to count. And that's the answer to Chapter one problem number 23.

So in a single bond, we know that two electrons are shared in a double bond. We have four less trunks, and in the triple bond we have six electric gloves.

Hello. So today we're going to be solving problem Number 48. How many peptide bonds are present and a peptide that has five amino acids. So first, let's talk about what a peptide is. A peptide is a compound consisting of monomers that are amino acid, so multiple amino acids, all bonded together, make up a peptide. And when we bond these amino acids together to form a peptide, the bond between each individual amino acid is called a peptide bond. So if we have five amino acids, okay, if we look at our screen, I kind of showed you how a peptide bond is formed between two immuno acid. So just to be clear, here's one amino acid, and here's the other, and there is a bond that forms between them. But if we have five amino acids that are all bonded together, there should be four peptide bonds


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