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You are running an experiment to see if a new medication and/or a low sodium diet will have an effect on people's blood pressure. Each subject gets either the ...

Question

You are running an experiment to see if a new medication and/or a low sodium diet will have an effect on people's blood pressure. Each subject gets either the new medication or placebo_ Each subject also is assigned either a low sodium diet or a regular diet: What are the treatments for this experiment? In each option below; the specific treatments are numbered, for clarity:1) new medication/low sodium diet; 2) new medication/regular diet; 3) placebo/low sodium diet; 4) placebo/regular diet

You are running an experiment to see if a new medication and/or a low sodium diet will have an effect on people's blood pressure. Each subject gets either the new medication or placebo_ Each subject also is assigned either a low sodium diet or a regular diet: What are the treatments for this experiment? In each option below; the specific treatments are numbered, for clarity: 1) new medication/low sodium diet; 2) new medication/regular diet; 3) placebo/low sodium diet; 4) placebo/regular diet: 1) new medication/regular diet; 2) placebo/low sodium diet 1) medication type, 23 diet 1) new medication, 2) placebo, 3) low sodium diet; regular diet



Answers

Exercise and diet are being studied as possible substitutes for medication to lower blood pressure. Three groups of subjects will be used to study the effect of exercise. Group 1 is sedentary, while group 2 walks and group 3 swims for 1 hour a day. Half of each of the three exercise groups will be on a salt-free diet. An additional group of subjects will not exercise or restrict their salt, but will take the standard medication. Use $Z$ for sedentary, $W$ for walker, $S$ for swimmer, $Y$ for salt, $N$ for no salt, $M$ for medication, and $F$ for medication free. (a) Show all of the elements of the sample space $S$. (b) Given that $A$ is the set of nonmedicated subjects and $B$ is the set of walkers, list the elements of $A \cup B$. (c) List the elements of $A \cap B$.

Question 91. Ask if changing diet can reduce high blood pressure, so it's as vegetarian diets and low sol diets are both promising. And so they took men with high blood pressure and assigned them randomly to these four different diets for someone is normal diet with unrestricted salt. 2nd 1 is vegetarian with unrestricted salt. There it is normal with restricted salt and for a vegetarian with restricted. So we're trying to decide how many factors are involved in the study and what are the factors. So in all four cases, there is some sort of diet described, and then some sort of salt and takers discarded so we can tell right away all of these cases, they're two different hurts to the experiment, which make up the 44 groups. That means there are two different factors. We can immediately say it's not a it's not do and it's not you. And so then in B, it says the different factors air high blood pressure checked with diet and see says normal vegetarian forward slash vegetarian diet and only should get such frustration insult. So in this case, the high blood pressure is what is selecting the individuals. So everyone all the men have high blood pressure, so there's no difference in high blood pressure between the groups. It's just a different type of diet and the different amount of salt. So in this case I see is the correct answer. Only that the questions, uh, options other have also have, um, kind of bizarre editions. Like men. All everyone in the study is a man. I'm so that can't be the case. And then four factors describing the fore diets that's before treatment's not for factors on. That's the confusing part of heat.

Question 91 Thin this experiment. They're trying to see if dieting backs high put pressure reduces high blood pressure, so they take men that have high blood pressure and split them into four different diets. So it's a normal diet that has on registration salt, a vegetarian diet that has unrestricted salt, a normal with restricted salt and a vegetarian with consult when they ask, What's a number of factors we have to. We have diet. Either it's normal boards, vegetarian. Then we have salt. Either have a restricted or unrestricted, and that's how we they created four different overall diets. Um, we have to because eating plans normal versus vegetarian and to salt intakes, making two different factors with each each have two different options within those factors.

What's up? Stock cots In this video, we're gonna be discussing an experiment and some of the aspects of the design. So will listening to a Mozart piano sonata make you smarter? Oh, yeah. In a 1995 study published in the journal Psychological Science, Rauscher Shaw and Chi reported that when students were given a spatial reasoning section of a standard I Q test, those who listened to Mozart for 10 minutes improved their scores more than those who simply sought quiet. So these researchers said the differences were statistically significant. Explain what that means in context. So for them to say that students that listen to Mozart made a statistically significant improvement in the score. That means that the difference in score is not attributable to either random or sampling variation. So this means that the change in score really WAAS because they listen to Muser to Mozart and not because that group of students just happened tohave kids that improve their score just because so it's part a part B, says Steele. Bass and crook, which is three different people, tried to replicate the original study. OK, sir, doing a replication so they're pretty much going to do the same study again In their study, also published in Psychological Science, the subjects were 125 college students okay and equals 1 25 students. Participants were 125 college students who participated in the experiment. For course, credit subjects first took the test. Then they were assigned toe one of three groups listening to Mozart, listening to Philip Glass or sitting for 10 minutes in silence. Three days after the treatments, they were retested. Draw a diagram displaying the design of this experiment. Okay, so that's that's pretty simple. So we have our n equals 1 25 students who take a pre test and then there randomly split into three groups and we have a group that listens to Mozart. So we have one factor, which is, I guess, type of music. And we have three levels. So we have Mozart. We have Philip Glass and we have a control, which is silence. And then three days later, they're retested and their scores are compared. So that is pretty simple diagram. Just toe visually organize our experiment. I find these really helpful. Um, I definitely do them a lot, so Now it's part of Part B two straw diagram of Are the experiment So Part C. The's box plots right here show the differences in score before and after treatment for the three groups. Did the Mozart group show Improvement? So here's our box plots. Here's one for glass Mozart and our control, which is silence. Um, here's our means. So here's the mean for a glass, the mean for Mozart in the mean for silence. So why is the mean for listening for glass and silence higher than the means score for listening to Mozart? So no, they're not showing a mean improvement from test to test one. There means scores are lower than the other groups. So if anything, they didn't improve or maybe got worse, I don't know. So no improvement. And then just looking at these box plots in general, we can see that so there means are roughly the same. Mozart is definitely lower than the other two, but now their whiskers have the same spread as well. So I really don't think listening to any of these treatments raises or lowers your score too much. So did the Mozart Growth Group show improvement? No because they're frickin mean is lower than the other groups. Parte de. Do you think the results prove that listening to Mozart is beneficial? Explain? No. So if we look at these box plots again, I don't think the results are significant at all. I mean, we can see the means scores and the spread are roughly even. So, if anything, I don't think there's any statistical significance between any of the groups. So I'm going to say no without further analyses, and then I'm just gonna put I mean and spread is roughly equal for the box box. Alright, guys, that's it for this video. We looked, in example, discussed some of the aspects of the design and I hope you learned a lot and that's it. See you next time.

What's up? Start cats In this video, we're gonna be discussing experiment and some of the aspects of the experimental design. So it says an experiment that showed that subjects but the dash diet were able to lower their blood pressure by an average of 6.7 points compared to a group fed a controlled diet. All meals were prepared by dieticians. All right, so we have our experiment. We have our subjects who were split into dash diet or control. And then they compared their blood pressure. Okay, Simple enough. So part A is why were the subjects randomly assigned to the diets instead of letting people pick what they wanted to be? So why are we using random ization to delegate our subjects into their respective treatments? And we do we randomly assigned so that we can avoid bias and we minimize individual variability and also confounding variables and also to get a representative sample of the population. So it's just write down a few notes. So we want a representative sample of population because if we let people pick what they want, then we may have a differential ratio of a characteristic in one group compared to the other so randomly assigning them. Let's ask a representative sample of the population and avoid bias and confounding variables. Cool. That's her. A part B is. Why were the meals prepared by dieticians? So why were the meals prepared by dietitian So that all the meals are the same? Because we have two treatments, we have control and we have the dash diet. So these are two treatments. So if people who are assigned the dash diet treatment are making their own meals than those meals are gonna be different, that's not That's not how an experiment works. Like the treatment has to be the same, so treatment must be the same. So it has to be consistent. Let's book insist, and I like that word better. So the treatment has to be consistent. If everyone's cooking for themselves, they're gonna be cooking inconsistently. Now. It doesn't. I guess it does specify that the dietitians also created the control diets. But, um, same thing the treatment treatment has to remain consistent. So and also by having a dietitian make thes meals where ensuring we have both accuracy and precision with our results. So that's another good thing all right, So that's part B. It's gonna part C. So Part C is Why did the researchers need the control group? If the dosh diet groups blood pressure was lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning, wouldn't that prove the effectiveness of the diet? So not necessarily. That may just be natural or random variation in their blood pressure. So we so we need a control group took to compare for a comparison. So we were only giving people one diet and then testing their blood pressure before and after. That doesn't give us any reason to think that having a control group would be any different because we don't know we didn't have a control group. So we don't know if this change in blood pressure is because of the diet or because of natural variation. There's no way that we can say this is statistically significant. We can say that their blood pressure was lower than in the beginning, but we can't really assign any statistical power to that. So that's how that's why we would need to included a control for sure. So last part part D almost done what additional information would you want to know in order to decide whether an average reduction in blood pressure of 6.7 points was statistically significant? Well, I would want to know what the change would be if they weren't on a diet. So I would want to know difference in blood pressure after no diet, and that's pretty much it. I mean, if we don't know what the difference in blood pressure of someone is after they're not dieting, then we can't compare anything to the change in blood pressure when they are dieting, so that's pretty much it for that answer. So that's the end of the video. We discussed experiment and some of the problems with the aspects of design and hope. You learned a lot, and I'll see you next time.


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