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Effective electron sinks. Pyridoxal phosphate stabilizes carbanionic intermediates by serving as an electron sink. Which other prosthetic group catalyzes reactions ...

Question

Effective electron sinks. Pyridoxal phosphate stabilizes carbanionic intermediates by serving as an electron sink. Which other prosthetic group catalyzes reactions in this way?

Effective electron sinks. Pyridoxal phosphate stabilizes carbanionic intermediates by serving as an electron sink. Which other prosthetic group catalyzes reactions in this way?



Answers

When electrons flow along the electron transport chains of
mitochondria, which of the following changes occurs?
(A) The pH of the matrix increases.
(B) ATP synthase pumps protons by active transport.
(C) The electrons gain free energy.
(D) NAD $^{+}$ is oxidized.

Okay, another question we have to talk about the Great Cycle. Remember that aerobic respiration starts from going to court molecule. It develops a professor of like policies and produces to pirouette molecules and then each pirouette is going to be converted to acetyl coa way this is what it is called by the way oxidation. And this process is called like qualities. After we have as a type of each type of molecular trying to enter the crib cycle called called this a cycle. Okay, let's draw here the complete or the general process of the Great site. But it is going to start with an appetizer but a molecule that has two carbons. Okay. And it is going to react with hollow ascetic. They are going to react and they are going to produce a molecule old cedric That has £6. Then after this size it is going to react well, saturday is going to be converted to ISIS hydrate by means of financing called qualities. And then I decided it's going to be converted to alpha people integrate by means of a lot of against I'm called by society. The hydrogen is that it's going to produce also All reviews uh navy molecules in order proposals in 88 with a problem here. Okay, also the revolution of one carbon dioxide here. So after this alphabetical trade is going to be converted the molecules of succeeding boy. Okay, the the enzyme that catalyzed this reaction is called alpha keto obliterate The hydrogen is and it is going to produce also to reduce uh maybe molecule and also it is going to produce one carbon dioxide. After this Social al Qaeda is going to be converted to Saks in eight And well that we are on the inside of the catalyst. The reaction is called assassinated for your kindness. And this actually is going to coordinate a GDP molecular produce GDP. Yeah, Okay. And after this the GDP is going to donate uh or it's going to formulate a ADP molecules in order to produce an ADP molecules. Okay, Well after this section eight is going to be converted to formulate the enzyme responsible of this is Saxon eight. The hydrogenation needed to improve videos. A molecule of FAB to produce a molecule of Of FATH two. Okay, after this film rate is going to be converted to my late and finally malady is going to be converted to ox solarcity. There is also pollution of in a D. H molecule here this all this is the Krebs cycle. The question says G D P which can convert it to a T. P. Is produced during which reaction of the citric acid cycle. Well, we know that it is here option. Aces I society did two alpha get older. This is false. Or sambisa sustainable. Coy two sacks in eight. This is a great. Okay, so up option is ocean BB

Okay. In order to solve this question, we have to talk about direct and transport chain. Remember the electron transport chain. If this is your mitochondria, I met to conduct has I'm out there microcontroller membrane that is this and in the mitochondria memory. That is this. It also has a mattress that is this. And an inter membreno space we called. It is between the both membranes of the mitochondria. Nearly four changes found in lying there mitochondrial memory. Okay, let's maximize it here. And what does the electrons opportunity does Well, it receives electrons from electron carriers. The electrons carriers are going to donate or unload the electrodes to the proper change. And the electron transport chain is going to transport these electrons in order to produce quarter in the complex number four because electoral fortune has a has four complexes. So okay. And the goal for this electricity to reach complex number four where elections are going to interact with oxygen and produce water and the philosophy is to move Britain's from the mattress to enter a member of the space. Okay. In order to create a greedy gradient and we're going to be useful to police ADP So electro five years are in 80 age And FATH two. Okay, they're going to uh you may remember in cellular respiration, you're going to produce these molecules in in Krebs cycle for example or in or in pirouette oxidation. Okay, so if this is complex number one. Yeah, this is complex number two. This is complex, numbers three. And it is complex number four. Okay. Mhm. Yeah. Okay. First N A T H is going to unload their electrons in complex number one. Okay, So particularly you're going to remember that in 88 is that reduces form Okay, In 88 is that we use it for Mitt means it's loaded, it is loaded with elegance while in 88 plus is the oxygenated for it means it is unloaded with electrons. Okay, so any idiot is going to come here. Yeah and it is going to unload the electrons a complex number Well it is going to unload the electrons and it's going to become oxidizing. Okay, this is going to cure things to the to accomplish number one that is called an eight th the hydrogen is okay, it is an ensign practically. Okay, so in a th particularly it's going to donate electrons another substance. Remember that all the proper chain is particularly like a transfer of electrons. It means an aviation going to give electrons to another molecule and other molecules going to give electrons to another molecule and this other molecules going to give those electrons to another molecule and so on. Okay, until it reaches oxy so in in a th is going to transfer the electrons to molecule called F M N Okay, if in in and this event as it was unloaded with electrons now it is going to be loaded with electrons because N a T H is giving or is transferring directly to me and it is going to become FMNH two, IMF- FM- two. Right, and this is the greatest form because it is going to be loaded with electrons now. And then they are not asking us about if it is too, but if It is to donates the electrons well, particularly it works in the complex number two. Okay. And it directly donates the electrons. Yeah, right to a molecule. Well, first is going to be reduced and it is going to transfer the electrons to a molecule called coenzyme Q. That is also called a bikini. Okay, so, and this is what happens in in in complex number two. And how F M A H to like move forward or transfer or to which molecule transfers electrons? Well, F M A F M H two is going to transfer the electrons two going some Cool. Oh, thank you. Okay, so at the end of the day in 88 in FATH- two, electrons are going to be target received by coenzyme Q. Orobici No training. Well, after this, Mhm two is going to to be oxidized again to FM in and the cycle is going to be in the same here. And what happens after calling Thank you receive the electrons. Well, it's going to transfer the electrons two some like I don't molecule here in the complex number three In the complex number three is called Well, has sitcom cytochrome B. Okay, it's going to transfer the electrical side dot com me. Okay, this is going to happen in complex number three. Then electrons are going to be moved to cytochrome see Okay. And finally electrons are going to be moved to side dot com. Site a gram A and also a three. Okay. That are part of the complex number four. And finally they are going to be received by OC here on incumbent number four go. So this is the sequence. So the question says My compound receives electron for in 88. Okay, option a says FMN. Okay, this is true because here, if a man is going to receive the electron from an aviation is the answer ocean business. So we can all know it is after FMN received the electrons, uh, cytochrome C1 not, this is not the answer neither. And the, you know, is this is the last step. So the answer is option AA

Okay. In order to answer this question, let's talk about the elegant opportunity. Remember that during metabolism there is going to be production of any VH and every these two molecules that are electron carriers. It means they are going to transport electrons from metabolism. Okay. And they are going to unload this electrons to the electron transport chain that is located in the mitochondria. Imagine this system mitochondria, it has two membranes. It has it has this memory that is the outer mitochondrial membrane and also it has an inner McConnell memory. Okay, this place here, it's called the mitochondrial matrix. And this place between the outer and inner mitochondrial matrix is called the interim memorandum space. Okay, so here in the inner mitochondrial matrix we have the electron transport chain that is made of for complexes complex number one. Complex number 23 and four. And in the age is going to donate the electrons too complex number one. Why every day is to is going to be the same but in complex number Okay, and once and the closer we get there, they're going to flow or to move to complex number three and then to complex number four where where they are going to react with oxygen producing in water. But what is the purpose of this when the purpose of this is that as electrons are going to flow through this uh, elegant reporting it is going to power active transport transport pumps that are going to pump protons. Well, not here was but does not move too complex Through a complex number two, but in complex number 13 and four protons are going to move from the mitochondrial matrix to remember the space and there is to have to create a gradient politically of high protein levels here in the internet space and low protein levels in the mitochondrial matrix. Okay, so because of this gradient of concentration, proteins are going to are going to move I want to want to move back to the matrix because of gradient in order to have like equal amounts of proteins there in this involvement parliament's However, this inner mitochondrial membrane is not permissible to proteins and proteins and come back or can't defuse back to the mitochondrial matrix by this uh in the american dramatic. So in american remembering however, the only way they can move back to the mitochondrial matrix is by this transporter called a TPC synthesis. Okay, this 80% is going to allow proteins to move back to the mitochondrial matrix. And by doing that they are going to correlate one ADP molecules to produce an ADP molecules. Okay, they say that one and a th molecular produces 2.5 80 PS and one F A D H two molecule produces 1.5 80 PS. Okay, so let's answer the question. It says what is a function of an electron transfer of an electron in the electron transport chain option? Aces to the first relate 80 p producing a DPD false option B says to power active transport pumps. Okay, this is correct because it is going to move protons to the international space to create a proton came a proton gradient. Okay. Options is to reduce him in complex three his faults and Ocean decides to oxidize Hoxie and seeing, okay, this is the best option is a option B.

Okay, so we have 80 p here and were asked the general reaction that it carries out. Um, so as you can see, we have three phosphate groups here. So what A PP does is it donates a phosphate group, um, to another molecule, which then makes it a DP um, and this is often used, um, coupled with reactions in order to produce energy or in order to drive a reaction forward. So enzymes are called kindnesses. Um, uh usually carries out, and the process is called phosphor relation for us for relation and an example of this would be a heck. So kindness. Because the 80 p is used. Teoh attach a foster group to glucose. It will say, Heck, so kind eyes is an example. But again, phosphor relation is the reaction that it's generally in the


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