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List the reactions of glycolysis thata. are energy consuming (under standard-state conditions).b. are energy yielding (under standard-state conditions).c. consume A...

Question

List the reactions of glycolysis thata. are energy consuming (under standard-state conditions).b. are energy yielding (under standard-state conditions).c. consume ATP.d. yield ATP.e. are strongly influenced by changes in concentration of substrate and product because of their molecularity.f. are at or near equilibrium in the erythrocyte (see Table 18.2 ).

List the reactions of glycolysis that a. are energy consuming (under standard-state conditions). b. are energy yielding (under standard-state conditions). c. consume ATP. d. yield ATP. e. are strongly influenced by changes in concentration of substrate and product because of their molecularity. f. are at or near equilibrium in the erythrocyte (see Table 18.2 ).



Answers

In mitochondria, exergonic redox reactions
(A) are the source of energy driving prokaryotic ATP synthesis.
(B) provide the energy that establishes the proton gradient.
(C) reduce the energy that establishes the proton gradient.
(D) are coupled via phosphorylated intermediates
to endergonic processes.

Today we're doing problem for which of the following reactions releases energy and were given for choices because this is a multiple choice practice question for the AP biology exam. Okay, so it's understand this question. We first have to. I understand what the basic energy source for all biological processes and that is probably heard of it. A cheapie, a dental try phosphate. He has three foster groups and and that den of seen sugar. When this is hydraulic sized by H tool hydraulics, this is the breakdown of 80 p into smaller products by H 20 water. This actually breaks down into two possible products. One of them is the most common one byproduct of this reaction. It's a DP, a dental die phosphate to phosphate groups and a p i. D. Ies in organic phosphate. And the less common one is a dental mano prostate. But this is less common, and this will probably not come up on the exam. I've done a lot of practice and I taking exam, and I've never seen a M P mentioned in an energy question or any any question that I have encountered on practice. It's usually a teepee and a G. Just a note. There s so it's unlikely you'll ever come up. Uh ah. You ever encounter anti in your college course or this textbook or definitely the exam? It's usually a GP and 80. Okay, so we've covered that, uh, now we are given four choices. Understanding this This should be memorized. This is memorized. Should know this by heart. I draw Assis. Okay. And that a t p is basic energy source for for for biological processes. All right, so you have to memorize this and you have to memorize this. This These are two key crucial ideas in the course, especially that 80 p is the foundational energy source. Okay, I think I have repeated that enough. Ah, we have given four choices. One of them includes MP, two of them. Actually a choice, eh? So let me around right down the choices a be see. So looks like Andy both mentioned MP and that's you. Not you. Usually the case, but we'll go through the ALS, the choices and will eliminate those that don't matter. And we'll leave those. That may be the answer, and we'll come up with the answer. So a m p plus phosphate. That's a question. That's number, eh? Ah, Joyce. Number a non number letter A and people's phosphate turns into a DP plus h two. So that's not how this works. A TP, remember, breaks down into usually a GP. Oh, but my bad. But sometimes it breaks down into empty. It's not the other way around. This doesn't happen, so we can eliminate choice. See 80 people spots fate we already see as in AA number letter A. We see that this is not how hydraulics is works. Remember, hydraulics isn't the addition of H 20 which breaks down a teepee Oh, which brings down a teepee into the smaller molecules. AdP usually and sometimes they empty. So choice bees and correct. Now C and D are on more on the right track. But again, we see that choice. The choice e is more or less Okay, this is what we see. 80 people's h 20 turns into a GP plus phosphate, so we'll leave that under consideration and choice. Do we see that that's wrong, because empty does not get hydra wised and magically turn into a teepee. That's not how this works It's the other way around because MP cannot be broken down into three foster groups when it contains only one mano. Remember, Mano is one. So choice t is crossed out and we're left with a choice e. So choice See is the answer. Thank you for listening and good luck with these problems.

Okay. In order to show this question, we have to talk about 80 p. Hate to be estates for. Are they losing 3/4 faith. Okay. Because it has like gathering the other thing in the digital space. It has a pin both sugar. The end it also has three 48 bonds. Okay so particularly 3:40 migrants and we can draw it like this. This is a structure. This can be the street graffiti for example. Okay. But remember that it also has like a little you know what that is adding it also the pinto's sugar. Okay, this is the general structure of the ADP and these are phosphate bonds. Okay. This is a teepee. And also energy is called like called the energy coin. Because it is like a source of energy when there is like a cleavage or when you destroy this. I want four straight bond. It is going to release free energy. Okay. And the free energy is going to be useful. Who um to power coupling reactions. And also this energy released by breaking this fossil bond is going to be useful or you're going to be used for for for for validation of other molecules. Okay. And you're going to end up with ADP and uh inorganic phosphorus. Okay, by splitting this sort of by breaking this four straight bonds. Okay, ADP ADP is also useful or as I mentioned for coupling reactions for example, there are some reaction for example the reaction that is catalyze it. But the exact kindness mhm In saying it's going to produce glucose six phosphate from a molecular glucose. In the reaction is going to use ATP Okay, in more than to produce this uh this product. So this is why 80 p. is also used because it is going to provide energy to power coupling reactions. So, according to this question, the most appropriate answer is option A. That says 80 P. D. Associates. And the energy released by breaking of 1/4 straight bond in a teepee is used for for formulation of another molecule. Okay, for example, here it is for formulating the six carbon of glucose and it is becoming glucose ISF aspect. Okay. Also a D. P. I analysis provides energy to power couple public reactions. Okay, so the answer for these questions. Option A.

Energy derived from glucose. Catchable ism is used to convert a VP in tow a teepee when a DP is using reaction, the force fit group is city attached. Who South street by the process called force for relish. The 2 80 molecules that are used in, like Wallace's process are invested in the first half and 4 80 be molecules are formed. Bye substrate, fourth violation and the correct answer. What the given caution is Option C.

We know Standard gives free energy at normal STP conditions. That is 298 kelvin temperature. One more look concentration and one bar pressure is mathematically represented by question. Negative. Artie, Ellen, Ellen is natural law. Kippy gate is equally brim pressure Here are is universal gas constant temperature. KP equally broom constant on delta G is standard gives free energy considering the reaction for auction e, we have standard Gibbs Free and ADI Change equals 1.7 kilo jewels, which is a positive value here. If Delta G outstanding temperature pressure condition is greater than zero, the reaction is non spontaneous. Option B. The expression that requires for calculating gives free energy is Delta G equals delta G et standard condition Bless our D natural law. KP substituting in the values we have Delta G equals negative two point. Oh, hello, Jules. Form over this case, Delta ji is less than they do this mean above reaction proceed in forward direction, favoring the formation off the products. This reaction is known spontaneous


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