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Wildlife trafficking and poaching are on the rise. According to CITFS, an estimated 25,000 elephants were poached across Africa in 2011 , and in South Africa alone ...

Question

Wildlife trafficking and poaching are on the rise. According to CITFS, an estimated 25,000 elephants were poached across Africa in 2011 , and in South Africa alone 668 rhinos were killed by poachers in $2012 .$ The resurgence of poaching is driven by the tremendous increase in the demand for ivory and other animal products and economic growth which means more money in the hands of consumers who are willing to pay for animal products. a. How are wildlife trafticking and poaching related to proper

Wildlife trafficking and poaching are on the rise. According to CITFS, an estimated 25,000 elephants were poached across Africa in 2011 , and in South Africa alone 668 rhinos were killed by poachers in $2012 .$ The resurgence of poaching is driven by the tremendous increase in the demand for ivory and other animal products and economic growth which means more money in the hands of consumers who are willing to pay for animal products. a. How are wildlife trafticking and poaching related to property rights? b. Can the tragedy of the commons in wildlife trafficking be curtailed by establishing property rights to the land and animals? c. How can 'bag limits' change the short-term outlook of hunters to a long-term outlook?



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A large share of the world supply of diamonds comes from Russia and South Africa. Suppose that the marginal cost of mining diamonds is constant at $1,000 per diamond and the demand for diamonds is described by the following schedule:
a. If there were many suppliers of diamonds, what would be the price and quantity?
b. If there were only one supplier of diamonds, what would be the price and quantity?
c. If Russia and South Africa formed a cartel, what would be the price and quantity? If the countries
split the market evenly, what would be South Africa's production and profit? What would happen to South Africa's profit if it increased its production by 1,000 while Russia stuck to the cartel agreement?
d. Use your answers to part (c) to explain why cartel agreements are often not successful.

Mhm. Let us complete the following sentence. If there is a continuous drought and large tough seeds become the steady diet of large, broad beaked birds due to natural selection blank. So now let us go back and reread our sentence and completed. If there is a continuous drought and large tough seeds become the steady diet of large, broad beaked birds due to natural selection, there will be more birds with small thin beaks dying and more birds with large, broad beak, surviving differential reproduction of birds with large broad beaks will result in subsequent generations having a higher percentage of birds with large broad beaks. Yeah. Mhm.

All right. So for this question, um, first, I think it's helpful to sort of visualize what's going on when this deer population has been reduced. And second of all, I think it's also important to remember that whenever you remove something from an ecosystem, there will be effects beyond the direct ones that are immediately apparent. Um, and that's basically what this question is kind of asking is for you to recognize that, um, let's take this example. This is a dear promise. Um, and this deer species eats on, you know, the grasses and the plants in the area, and it's fed upon by like or yes, predators eat them basically, um, like, this is a fair question mark. Just dears get eaten by something pretty much. And in this equation, let's say this dear has died. So now all of these pathways of eating plants are gone. That means that there are more plants everywhere because not just the sphere is gone, but a lot of dear God. Now that however this viewer gone this mode of getting energy, that predation is also gone. Because now this bear question mark has no food source because all of the Vera gone? Um, another. This bear is gone. Maybe, you know, the bear also fed on a rabbit and then the of the rabbit species is going to live more. Um, so this is an example of, like, indirect causes of, uh, taking out one organism from an environment. Uh, but now that we have the sort of, like mostly direct consequences down, let's start thinking about what else will happen. Because as the deer is gone, there's also this other route, which is the plants. Now, as a number of plants increase, we also have soil. And these plants are taking nutrients from the soil. They might be taking a lot of them. And, you know, dear, aren't going to feed off of everything in the environment. So maybe there's this tree that the leaves air, you know, to high off the ground for them to consume. So this tree might not be immediately affected by the change in deer population. But now that all of these grasses air starting to grow and taking all of the nutrients from the soil with, um, maybe this tree species isn't getting as many nutrients. So maybe that will have a detrimental effect. And then you anything that feeds off of these trees were lives in them will also you have a dental mental effect on them. So this is just sort of an example of how every thing happening in an ecosystem will have an effect not just on the line after it, but the line after that and then probably the line after that and the line after that. Um, so you want your answer to this question to be as complete as possible. Now that we have that down, though, this is a multiple choice question, not an essay question. So we have the benefit of narrowing these down based on which ones are not only correct, but also, um, give us them with detail. So option a, uh, tells us to look at environmental conditions. Um, What that means I don't even know what that means. You know, like, how What does this question considering my environmental conditions? Are we talking about a biotic factors? Are we talking about you know, this whole process here? Are we talking about the immediate effects? I don't know. This is a very vaguely worded response. So And also environmental conditions on, like the whole ecosystem could take a while to respond because, as you can see, this like tree of effects, uh, happens across like generations on and species. And it might not be immediately apparent what the full effect on the whole environment is, you know, from the first you know, recording of deer hunting. Um, Option B tells us to look at the predators, uh, the plants they feed on nutrients in the soil pests, too, because pest will also be feeding off of dear. And maybe when dear gone, maybe they'll decrease. Or maybe they'll hop on. Let's say this fun little buddy and that and they will affect it more than they had before. And then maybe they'll proliferate because now the bunnies are proliferating because they don't have any competition with the deer on the food. But now the pest story eating them and it's it's all cause and effect. So so far, Option B is a lot more detailed. Gives us, you know exactly You know what parts of the stage of each, you know, line we're looking at here so that it looks like a pretty good option. But let's read on So you know, we don't miss anything. Option C says looking at Predator, that alone is sufficient to determine the impact on hunting And how that, you know, while predator predation is like a major part of this equation, and this will be one of the most direct causes, uh, predators, because they're sort of at the top of, like, the energy chain, if you will, um, they tend to have lower numbers in general, in any ecosystem of relative to herbivores. Like deer and looking at their numbers alone won't tell you A You know, you don't know if this is just standard variation. Um, you also don't know if a predator population is being affected by other things. Mm. You know, it's no. The deer aren't just the only things in their lives. So looking at everything that's related to the deer and then everything related to that gives you a broader scope and a better way to actually find, like, causal links between hunting and effects on the environment. Um, an option D tells us that looking at nutrients in the soil is all we need again. That one's even a less, uh, causal quote unquote. Then just looking at a predator because there are a lot of things that can happen in an ecosystem that could change nutrients and soil. So that's another like, Is this just relieved to the deer? Is there something else happening in the system? Is this just a natural part of you know how this ecosystem changes from, like, season to season? Um, those were questions that are could be answered, but there are a lot more difficult to answer if you're only looking at one factor. So because B gives us all of those factors, it isn't vague about, you know, ever environmental concerns, I would say that that is our

All right. So for this question, um, at its core, it's asking for the consequences of global climate change, which, in and of itself could be an essay question. Thankfully, we get the benefit of the multiple choice options so we can delineate between which ones fit the question better in this question. In particular, there is a certain wording in it that is kind of keyed for us. Tow figuring out what the right answer is, and that is short term and long term effects. Um so in order to figure out the right answer, we need to make sure that the short term effects are really short term effects. And the long term ones are really long term, basically short term being the immediate causes that you might be able to see and sort of a year to year basis, or even like within a generation. Um, these things might go away if climate change is reversed or slow down. Um, or there might be some alleviation of them like, but long term effects are those that would last longer than maybe like a generation, or could be like stir a stick around the environment even long after you know, changes. Maybe you happened in the opposite direction. So those were kind of the baselines. The terms that we need Thio keep in the back of our heads as we're reading the answer choices. So let's get started and read through these and figure out which ones make the most sense, given the question and the long term and short term parameters. Um, so option A. We have short term changes being melting of glaciers, rising water levels, uh, which may cover islands their host sea level and destroying a local ecosystems. So but those were all short term effects. Those are all things that we can see happening. You know, currently I spent, like the rising in water levels and in multiple glaciers and in destruction of habitats. Um, are things that are happening? Uh, the ladder could maybe be along from effect since sickle cut the long term effects here. And, you know, maybe that will give us another clue is to where the answer might lie in our, uh, possible choices. Long term effects. This one says our seasonal patterns, unseasonal rainfall and life cycle of insects changes. Um, changes in seasonal patterns is a long term effect that you could continue on for a time, even after you know the temperature might, you know, slow it's arise or might begin to drop off a little bit. That would take some adjusting to, um, so that one's correct on seasonal rainfall Could be more short tomb. It could be long term, but then, if it was long term, it would become seasonal. Rainfall will be a seasonal change and in the last one, life cycle insects again, potentially long term but Maur short term adaptation to changes in temperature. Eso es I would say it's probably out, but we should look at obviously all of our options. And just make sure that, you know no, the others air so egregiously wrong that a is our only option. Left be tells us our first term ones are seasonal patterns and seasonal rainfall already got the gate. I think it's safe to say we can dis mark be because seasonal changes are not, um, as short term as same melting glaciers, especially because long term changes in this option or flowering times of flowers, which would happen almost immediately and tend to change based on um, the climate as it is that it's not something that would stick around even after you know climate change is reversed or slow down or something. Um, so that's sort of out of the gate already, Option C tells us short term again. Include seasonal patterns. So we can probably discount that, um, already. But let's take a look at the long term changes melting of glaciers again, that's a short term effect. It's something that's happening, you know, now every day and once the temperature would start to fall off or, you know, cool down a little bit, that would probably stop because glaciers their eyes and see, that's what I CE does, huh? That leaves us a. D is looking like her only choice left. But let's read it and make sure it actually makes sense, because if it doesn't and we might have made a mistake and we should go back. So Option D tells us that short term effects include glaciers melting, check unseasonal rainfall again. I think unseasonal is the key term here, and changes in the life cycles of insects and animals again. I think that that, um, is more in line with the short term change because if the climate words change, you know, in the next couple of centuries, that would be a quick adaptation like, um, it wouldn't stick around because they wouldn't be advantageous to the animal itself. It's not like a seasonal change, which are kind of like embedded in the weather patterns that would take longer to react to, uh, changes in the climate. Um, I know that the long term changes that give this would be rising water bodies that could cover islands close to sea level, destroying the local ecosystem, That is, I think, more of a long term change. Um, then anything else because it's would be in effect for a long time unless, you know water levels fell off because of an ice age. Say, um in, you know, a couple 100 years, that water level, if you know the temperature maybe doesn't keep rising but kind of levels out, would stay covering the island, the ecosystem would be destroyed. And even if you know, the wire levels were toe return down in the island were to come back above sea level, the ecosystem would be gone because everything would have drowned pretty much so. I think that Dee is still even after you know it's past spoke the process of elimination test and the correctness test. I think that that is our

Okay, So 36 is interesting. Is it? Gives us, uh, four statements. Always start the exact same. Okay, so we are told how the human population growth has led to unsustainable resource use, fishing and hunting is those habitat destruction. And they were looking for what is wrong in those statements after that? Okay, so this time with the letter A a states that these incidents is result in slow ablution rate when in reality, uh, it can actually lead to increased selection. Right? So, for example, with over fishing, if we're always fishing larger fish, there's gonna be a selection advantage for small fish. Little puny ones that don't grow is big, right? So we can actually thes actions can increase selection and increase the evolutionary formation of new species and traits. Okay. And if you want to look and see, we'll see. Says that fossil Phil fuels lead to reduce populations. Well, that's incorrect. It's actually gonna be over fishing. That does that. So it's not the fossil fuels. It's not the existence of cool that reduces our are reduced population. Zits are over, are over fishing of them. Okay, so so season. Correct? For that reason, And then if we will get D here, he tells us about how the larger human populations are decreasing value of products and tame from species. Well, that's not true, right? So supply and demand so more people. So more people is going to lead to a greater demand for these products and silence us with a letter B as being correct. And let it be, of course, states that climate change is occurring due to our use of fossil fields, which is absolutely correct.


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