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For the following questions, list the number and the correct answer from this bank of possible answers Not all answers will be used and some may be used more than ...

Question

For the following questions, list the number and the correct answer from this bank of possible answers Not all answers will be used and some may be used more than once. 2 points eachdisassociationdigestionhydrogenation absorptionbig bangammoniacalciumhydrogen phosphate saturationunsaturation peptide bonds plasma active transport cell membrane enzyme homeostasis osmosis adipose tissueWhat is the term that describes electrolytes separating into ions when ingested?What is the semipermeable barrier

For the following questions, list the number and the correct answer from this bank of possible answers Not all answers will be used and some may be used more than once. 2 points each disassociation digestion hydrogenation absorption big bang ammonia calcium hydrogen phosphate saturation unsaturation peptide bonds plasma active transport cell membrane enzyme homeostasis osmosis adipose tissue What is the term that describes electrolytes separating into ions when ingested? What is the semipermeable barrier that requires carrier proteins to assist certain chemicals to enter and exit cell called? The early atmosphere was believe to contain methane; water vapor; carbon dioxide; and_ The universe is hypothesized to have been formed from One main function of proteins is to act as catalyze chemical reactions in our body: which The term for the constant balancing of fluids inside and outside of cells is called Trans fat are very unhealthy fats and made by process called



Answers

Which of the following statements are correct? Explain your answers. A. The extracellular signal molecule acetylcholine has different effects on different cell types in an animal and often binds to different cell-surface receptor molecules on different cell types. B. After acetylcholine is secreted from cells, it is long-lived, because it has to reach target cells all over the body. C. Both the GTP-bound $\alpha$ subunits and nucleotide-free $\beta \gamma$ complexes-but not GDP-bound, fully assembled G proteins-can activate other molecules downstream of GPCRs. D. $\mathrm{IP}_{3}$ is produced directly by cleavage of an inositol phospholipid without incorporation of an additional phosphate group. E. Calmodulin regulates the intracellular $\mathrm{Ca}^{2+}$ concentration. F. Different signals originating from the plasma membrane can be integrated by cross-talk between different signaling pathways inside the cell. G. Tyrosine phosphorylation serves to build binding sites for other proteins to bind to RTKs.

Today we're going to have a brief overview about certain 10 aspects of the plasma member and that are good to know and are also important to know. Here we have a plasma membrane, and an important aspect of this is that plasma membranes are selective. Have selective permeability, and this can be seen when looking at small macro molecules and uncharged molecules that's can cross the membrane without the help of proteins and channels. However, when you look at macro molecules and water molecules and charged molecules and ions, they cannot cross the plasma membrane by themselves. They need the help of channels and aqap Oren's to be able to cross. This is what is said to be selective permeability. If this plasma membrane did not have these proteins to help these macro molecules and charged ions to transport the charged ions and macro molecules would be highly impermeable to these plasma membranes. Now, another important aspect of the plasma membrane is when you look at protein channels. Protein channels do not have binding pockets that need to be filled in order for salutes to pass through. This could be seen when you look at this protein channel and this specific protein channel is always open. So you have this protein channel that is transporting potassium, and this protein channel is transporting sodium. Now, these channels don't have any binding pockets that need to be filled. In order for these molecules to goes room, these channels transport these molecules based on the size in charge of each molecule. Now, this is different. This protein channels different from a gated, lagging gated protein channel which does need a certain salute to bind before a specific salute can pass through. So specifically, for this example, uh, neurotransmitter is needed before sodium can transport through. Another aspect that is important is when you look at transporters versus channels. Now again, channels can either be opened or closed, and transporters have, um ah, more complicated aspect of how salutes can transport. Now they're similar in that they do transport, um, and move salutes in or out of the cell. But one main difference is the speed. When you look at channels, the speed of of which molecules move is greater than those of transporters. Simply because transporters often have undergo confirmation, all changes before the solid can pass now for this example when you look at this. Number one, the first gate is open. So when the salutes come in this channel, this transporter undergoes, Um, a confirmation ALS Yeah, change before this second gate is open, this by default slows the rates of, um, the salutes going through. One aspect that is not greatly talked about, um is that there are protein pumps that require light to be activated. Now, this is mainly found in certain bacterial cells, and it expends energy by the sale in the act of transport is used to pump the ions out of, um the cell and across the membrane plasma membrane. So it's different from this couple transporter, which uses, um which does not use light to be able to transport. Um, and also, if you look at this a teepee driven pump, it doesn't need light. Either. It uses a teepee and hydraulics of it to produce energy for this salute to transport through this light driven, trans light driven pump uses light energy to be able to get this salute across. Now, this is an important aspect, um, to know that the resting potential of a cell is normally negative on the inside and more positive on the outside. This is because, um that even though there are certain potassium channels that are leak channels, which are mostly always open transporting potassium out of the cell, this is to prevent the self the inside of the self, from becoming too negative. If it's too negative, this cell will have a greater, um, difficulty from reaching action potential, so this thes leak channels prevent themselves from becoming too negative. However, the potassium concentration inside the cells still remains higher inside than outside simply because of this sodium potassium exchange pump. Or it can also be known as an N A. Okay, A t p Ace Tom. Now this pump actively transport to potassium channels. I'm sorry to potassium ions inside for every three sodium channel sodium ions outside. This allows for there to be an accumulation of potassium inside versus a accumulation of sodium outside. And this keeps the inside of the cell a normal resting potential of negative 70 m v. True, this next topic is speaking about SIM ports and anti ports supports and anti ports are away for, let's say, two salutes to be moved at the same time. SIM ports move salutes in the same direction as opposed to anti ports, which moves the salutes in opposite directions. Now switching the direction of a sim port will not switch the movement of the salute involved. For example, if I was to take if I was to take this Sim port and switch it, okay. And now the face that used to be on the side of Saul is now facing the extra cellular space and the side that was facing the excess Celia Space is now facing the site of Saul. This does not change this simple into an anti port. The structure of the port did not change simply because I switched the face of this import. Okay. And that's important to know the last type of we're going to talk about is the firing of an action potential in order for an action potential to fire the potential of the Exxon needs to reach a threshold. And that threshold is around negative 55 million votes. Now, though, this number is negative. The acts on is actually becoming more positive because the resting potential of a cell is negative. 70 Envy. This happens because there is an influx of sodium. Okay. And that influx of sodium is driving the cell to become mawr positive. Okay. And those were a few facts that are good to know when speaking on the plasma membrane.

So it current, which is given to be 1.8 PICO EMS I Easy photo. 1.8 PICO ems means that a charge off 1.8 pickle columns flows through the potassium Iron Channel every second. So that's 1.8, because columns every single second and hence the number of potassium ions that passed through the Iron Channel every second we can calculate as 1.8 times 10 to the minus. Tro cool arms every second over the charge off a single. I am 1.6 times 10 to the minus 19 columns, and this gives us one point 1 to 5. Tang's tend to the seven atoms or ions every second. And since the channel is only open for one millisecond, the number of potassium ions that passed the channel in is equal to one 0.1 25 times 10 to the minus. Turn to the seven actually multiplied by the time off. One millisecond one times 10 to the minus three seconds, and this gives us a total number. Jesse Mines that passed through the channel in one millisecond one or in 13 times, 10 to the full. At times and now we can calculate current density J the common density in the I in general. Jay, is I over a the current for your area. So that's one point It Picco MPs, which is 1.8 times 10 to the minus 12 and piers over an area off pie. Our squid and the radius is half the diameter, 0.15 times 10 to the minus nine meters square and then to get it cut in density off 2.5 times 10 to this times 10 to consider it two point players. Terms tend to the seven, and that is EMS per square meter.

Okay. So today we will be talking about why the different levels or concentrations of gas is at, you know, different desk depths in the ocean. Okay, so particularly the two gas is of concern are oxygen 02 and carbon dioxide co two. Okay, so a Z could tell I made a graph. Hi. I like to do visual type of learning s. Oh, here we go. So, at the top of this graph, I made a blue line representing the surface of the ocean. Okay. And at the surface of the ocean was look at co two levels and how they change as we go down deeper into the ocean. So starting off at the surface, co two levels are at its lowest. If we go down to the bread axes, which is also for co two is for the scales for co two, um, co two starts out at its lowest, which is 90 parts per million. Okay, um, so let's go back up to the surface and let's scuba dive down down deeper into the ocean. We come around here to back to the red access and it is around, I don't know, maybe 108 parts per million. And so, from surface to, you know, deeper into the ocean, the concentration of seal to goes up. Okay, so I like to write things out. As you know, you go down as you go down into the ocean. So down into the ocean, scuba diving. Okay. What happens? Like we just said for co two, what happens is that co two concentrations go up, and we will explain why that iss I just wanted to How kind of guide. Everybody, um you know how to read the graph and all that start to finish type of thing. Okay. Now we need to look at oxygen levels oxygen starting at the surface of the ocean at the blue line, where it's a 0 m death, we look, and at the surface, oxidants starts at a 7.5 parts per million. And as we scuba dive down into deeper parts of the ocean, oxygen is now at a 1.5 parts per million, which means from surface to deeper ocean, we go from 7.5 to 1.5. Which means that oxygen concentrations as we descend deeper into the ocean Well, uh, oxygen levels decrease. So as you go deeper into the ocean, we lose oxygen. Oxygen is not as prevalent as the surface. Okay? Why is that? So now we're explained. Why not that we see the trend. Now we're gonna explain. Well, why is that? What's going on in the ocean that is causing this, you know, changing concentrations of gas. Okay, so at thes sunlit layer, which I'm going to write as s for sun l for lit l for layer, sunlit layer so sunlit layer I have denoted with the dash line. Okay, this is the sunlit layer. And in the sunlit layer is where the's beams of rays of sun What the's black squiggly marks indicate sun comes down into the ocean. You know, these beams of sun traveled, you know, through the water and in the sunlit layer of the ocean. You know, we have phytoplankton. We have like seaweed, and we have photosynthetic plants and organisms. So in the sunlit layer, with all these photos with photosynthesis occurring in with these photosynthetic organisms, we have photosynthesis occurring like I just said, eso photosynthesis consists of what? Well, if you remember to do photosynthesis carbon dioxide is needed. Um, plus plus what? We just said it the sun. Okay. They need that lights and which will in turn turn into oxygen. They produce oxygen and all the oxygen being produced. Kids put into the water because the plants don't want it, they don't need it. So the water, the water's oxygen concentration goes up and the waters carbon dioxide concentration will go down because the plants are taking it in and the phytoplankton are taking it in, taking it out of the water into their cells, coupled with some sunlight. Okay, and they produce oxygen, says I don't want it. Here you go. Now it's in the water, which is great. It's great for other living organisms. Okay, so that's why that's why at the surface of the ocean in the sun, like I said in the sunlit layer, CO two is gonna be less. It's it's getting used up. 02 is going to be at its most. As you could see, the graph 02 is at its most okay. C 02 is at its least all right because of the photosynthetic organisms now passed the sunlit layer on what's going to call this deep deeper than the sunlit layer you can see in the graph that they start to the two lines. We'll start to go towards one another and crisscross and then go into the opposite direction of what they started. So oh, two starts high, crisscross. Now it's low co two starts high, crisscross. Uh, And when co two starts Lowe. Sorry. So to start slow at 90 Crisscross and higher than when it started. All right, why is that? Well, when we don't have photosynthesis going on because we're no longer in the sunlit layer. Um, other organisms that don't do photosynthesis. Rather they do aerobic respiration. They What do they do? Well, they will take like us. They will take oxygen. Okay. Like oxygen, fish. How? User Gilles To obtain oxygen. Okay, Plus well, we don't use sun. Those organisms don't use son, but they do You They do need some type of food. That's their energy source, some type of food. Whatever that food is, they will couple. It's with some oxygen. And what do they produce as a waste product? Well, you guessed it. It iss seek out to carbon dioxide. They don't want that stuff just like we don't want that stuff in our bodies. So they spit it out into the water. Great. So since these organisms that are not photosynthetic at all, they take whatever oxygen is in the ocean, they take it out of the water into their bodies. So that's why oxygen is going down as we go deeper past that sunlit layer. Okay? And as a result, after eating so food, all that good stuff, now they're saying, I don't want this co two. It's not good for my body. I'm gonna spit it out into the water that is aerobic respiration. So that's why CO two increases because, you know, you have more sea life that does aerobic respiration, more organisms that air spitting out the CO two. I don't want it. It's not good for me. Here you go. I'll take that oxygen, though, So that's why oxygen gal's oxygen concentration of the ocean will go to, um, because all the organisms past the sunlit layer they're using at all. So oxygen starts high, go deeper. Many, many organisms, many money organisms using it, using it, using it, it goes, it just keeps dropping. With the co two uh, there's no photosynthetic organisms past the sunlight layer. So many organisms air saying as they're using up all this 02 the spitting out CO two, spitting it out, spitting it out, spinning out. No photosynthetic organisms, removing it from the water so it just accumulates more and more organism. Spit it out. They don't need it more and more organisms spit it out. One more organisms e use of oxygen, More organisms Spit out that co two and so increases as you go deeper into the ocean. All right, I hope that was good enough and not too long.

Okay, you guys, here we will be talking about why we have, uh, different concentrations of gas. Um, at different meters of death in the ocean. So here on our why access. We have meters, uh, in depth in the ocean and on the excess. We have parts per million. Uh, concentration of these two gasses. The red Ex access is for carbon dioxide and the green X accesses for oxygen. Uh, concentration scale. So here. I'm going to draw. Um, just a water line. This is thesis AFIS of the water. Okay. And at the surface of the water, we have oxygen concentrations are, Let's see, if we go down, we have It's about 7.5 parts per million. Okay. And that is that the surface of the ocean or of the water? Now, if we were scuba divers, we would go deeper and deeper and deeper to the ocean and school, would I? And a deeper that we go, uh, in the depth of the ocean. We end up around 1.5 parts per million. So from the surface to deeper ocean, we go down from 7.5 parts per million to 1.5 parts per million. So the same This, um, if we go down, if we go down in the ocean, then that means our oxygen levels. We'll also go down. Okay. Uh, now, if you look at carbon dioxide, we start at the very surface, Uh, the seawater 0 m and depth. And if we look, that's around 90 parts per million carbon dioxide. Okay. And if we were scuba divers, we would descend deeper into the ocean. 501,000, 2000 m and depth. And that will place us around between 106. 110 parts per million. Okay, so we start off in the ocean at 90. The deeper we go, we end up around maybe 108 parts per million. So the deeper in the ocean that we go okay again, the deeper in the ocean that we go when it comes to carbon dioxide, the our concentration goes up. Now, why is that? Well, if we look here at the very surface of the water Okay, let's say I'm gonna use blue again. Let's say there we go. You look here at the surface of the water. Okay? We have. I'm gonna job. He's just little shapes of green to represent, um, are photosynthetic organisms now? It could be plants. Such a seaweed. It could be phytoplankton. They all do what is called photosynthesis. Okay. And this area of the ocean where son see our sun rays, where the sun reaches the water and the water absorbs the sunlight raised. This is called the sunlit layer. Okay. And I'm gonna call. That s l l. This is called the sun lit layer. And and the sunlit layer Uh huh, is where sun rays are absorbed into the water. So when the sun rays are absorbed into the water, thes photosynthetic organisms are absorbing. Those son might raise to do their metabolic activities. Okay, so all these, uh, photos, synthetic organisms? Um, they will take I'll use green. Okay, They will take right now. Okay. They will take carbon dioxide. Not one. They will take carbon dioxide. Okay. Plus mhm the sun light the sunlight, right. A an They will produce mhm and expel. Yeah, oxygen. Just like plants are on dry land. They do the same thing and the water also, they take the carbon dioxide from the water this carbon dioxide in the water. They will take that carbon dioxide out of the water, making the seal too. Levels or concentration lower. Pair that with the sunlight and they give off oxygen. They put oxygen into the water, which makes our 02 levels higher were concentration higher. And that makes sense because here we have our lowest concentration. At the surface, we have our lowest concentration off carbon dioxide, but also at the surface we have our highest concentration of oxygen, so this makes sense below the sunlit layer. We do not have organisms that do photosynthesis because our were sunlight rays. It's about travel that far down deep into the water. So without these organisms doing photosynthesis like I have shown right here, decrease in carbon dioxide and releasing or increasing 02 in the water, there's a switch in the levels as you go down deeper levels of for concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen. Okay, so as we go down deeper as we go down deeper, put it right here. We don't have photosynthesis happening anymore, and that means all these other organisms, such as fish and other aquatic life, they don't do photosynthesis rather they do aerobic respiration, which means they will consume oxygen. Okay, they consume oxygen. And let's call it just food. Because everybody needs that nutrition for metabolic capabilities. Take oxygen and food and we expel out carbon dioxide fish get oxygen through their gills. You know, small amounts. They still need it. So all these fish and other aquatic life that are not performing photosynthesis. They consume oxygen, so oxygen in the water goes down. Okay, Since there's so many animals in the ocean, they keep consuming it and consuming it, consuming it. And the farther deep down you go, you have more and more Quantico life, and they consume it even more. Um uh huh. And then so and turns a carbon dioxide. Since they're consuming all this oxygen, they release carbon dioxide into the water. Okay, this carbon dioxide, there is no photosynthesis happening. So there is nothing taking carbon dioxide out of the water. Once you're below that sunlit layer, Therefore, carbon dioxide is going to increase and accumulate all these animals. Aquatic life is excreting carbon dioxide into the water. And that is why we have varying levels of gas is a different depths of the ocean on the sunlit layer, you have decreased carbon dioxide, increased oxygen due to photosynthesis being performed by organisms such as final plankton, seaweed, other plants, other Clinton and you go below that sunlit layer. You don't have photosynthesis anymore. And so I reverse happened to reverse happens where you see the switch and carbon dioxide is now going higher. Oxygen, which started out high in the sunlit later, now becomes lower.


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