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Tanuam #McItindependenlly chobe0 ce: eludenocerillneters Iur the dcrinanl hand Ivr accompanying data lable shows reaction distarictes , ndacnte quicker reacions Com...

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Tanuam #McItindependenlly chobe0 ce: eludenocerillneters Iur the dcrinanl hand Ivr accompanying data lable shows reaction distarictes , ndacnte quicker reacions Complete pars( (a} through (c} Ex-low Snullar distances Click the icon Vinn table. ol nte dislribution 0f the sample desuiibe shape. Make Hraph Ort the boundary of two hins_ place Ilai value inlo the graph dishibution vales Makethe lehi Choosu ihe correct graph belowThe distribution %

Tanuam #McIt independenlly chobe0 ce: eludeno cerillneters Iur the dcrinanl hand Ivr accompanying data lable shows reaction distarictes , ndacnte quicker reacions Complete pars( (a} through (c} Ex-low Snullar distances Click the icon Vinn table. ol nte dislribution 0f the sample desuiibe shape. Make Hraph Ort the boundary of two hins_ place Ilai value inlo the graph dishibution vales Make the lehi Choosu ihe correct graph below The distribution %



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Experimental data are listed for the hypothetical reaction $$ \mathrm{X} \longrightarrow \mathrm{Y}+Z $$ $$ \begin{array}{lcccccc} \hline \text { Time (s) } & 0 & 10 & 20 & 30 & 40 & 50 \\ {[\mathrm{X}]} & 0.0038 & 0.0028 & 0.0021 & 0.0016 & 0.0012 & 0.00087 \\ \hline \end{array} $$ (a) Plot these data as in Figure 11.3 . (b) Draw a tangent to the curve to find the instantaneous rate at $40 \mathrm{~s}$. (c) Find the average rate over the 10 to $50 \mathrm{~s}$ interval. (d) Compare the instantaneous rate at $40 \mathrm{~s}$ with the average rate over the 40 -s interval.

Mhm mm From the first part of the problem, it is clear that the reaction kinetics can be done. An initial stage of the reaction, A straight line is easily approximated in the initial stage hands, the initial rate can be calculated as the change in concentration of and or two divided by the change in time. From the first part of the problem, it is quite clear that the curve become almost flat at a very large instant of time. Therefore, as the time approaches infinity, the reaction rate we will be zero.

So here we know that our conjugated dying will react faster in order to attain maximum stability. And then we can take a look at a energy profile diagram we'll just sketched out on the screen. Well, of course we've got are relative energy scale that we've got our reaction coordinate. So we have the following first line and then our label these in a second second line. So here we have our isolated dying, and here we have our conjugated dying. So you can see here that we just simply have less amount of energy that is required to make the products and therefore is faster than the isolated dying.

Hi, everyone. So today we're gonna be constructing some box pots so we can compare distributions for these two cassettes which talking about home runs between two leaks. I'm gonna do this by calculating the big fired summer statistics that I've just written here, which we could easily do from this them on leave diagram. So we start by looking for the minimum for the National League. Now, we just do that by reading. The smallest value we confined in this case is 103. So we just worry 100 and three, that similar to the maximum, we find the highest value confined, which down? Hey is 202 now is fine. The media, We're gonna find the midpoint of this set. So to do that, we're gonna work out how many values we have, So we can't. 12368 10 12 14 15 16 Values. So it looking between the eight from the night value in order to find a midpoint so we can't 3678 on nine. So actually got two different values to look at us. We're gonna find the midpoint of those two mid points so we have 149 plus 158 all over too. And that's gonna be equal to our median, which is 150 story plaintiff live. So now we've got this midpoint here. We can split this data into two hearts and we can split this half skin to find our core tiles. And so we've got 12345678 values in this court. I'll So we're looking out between the fourth and fifth Values to find the midpoint of this half. So 1234 and five both of these 137 Nice. An easy 137 is our lower court tile again for the for the third quarter mile. We also have eight buyers in this half we count 1234 and five. So I got between 166 on 170. So he right, 166 plus 170 all over too is equal to 168. Now that is brilliant. And we do the exact same thing for this side over here. Easy to find the minimum Lois, where you can find 131 similarly, et 20 maximum heart highest where you can find 245. Well, happen that 245. And now we're gonna split are set into two. So we work out how devoted you have. 3456789 10 11 12 13 14. So, a midpoint between the seventh and eighth value. So 34567 and eight. So it's either side of this line. So 175 197 175 Close. 187 all over too. It's equal to Oh, again, Excuse me. Oh, equal to 181. Nice and easy. And again, we're gonna split these hearts and 1/2. So we've got 34567 in here. So the fourth value is gonna be our mid point on. That is just 149. Nice and easy. And again for failure. Down here. 1234 200 is our third cool tile. And so what we have now we have a big fire, some logistics, both of these. I'm gonna find the inter quartile range so we can construct something called Fences. I talked quite a bit about fences in the last video of basically what these do is allow us to identify any outliers so that when we're constructing our box plots were not inaccurately representing the data. So now it's going to find the I Q. Well, we just take the first quarter on the third equal time and we dio 168 minus 137 which iss 31 in this case. And similarly we do 200 minus 149 is equal to 51. Brilliant. So it was like three, doesn't it? 51 and we're going to stop defenses. Are we gonna do that? Using a handy formula? So we obviously haven't op offense on the low offense on Arlo, offense is gonna be a Q one minus at 1.5. No times the Inter Coltart range, which is what we just calculated here in green. And the up offense is gonna be the third quarter tile philosophy 1.5 times like you are now. These are nice and easy to ramble, just going over that 1.5 number. That's key. So just the ease of use. I'm gonna work out what, 1.5 times each of these is so that I don't have to do it mid calculation. So 1.5 times 31 comes to 46.5, 6.5 on 1.5 times 51 is 76 0.5. And so let's make some fences. So I'm gonna use red for offences on and we dio so actually handily. I've written down my upper and lower court tiles. Here is what I have to keep scrolling up, so just run. But this is Cuban. Sorry, this is G three even that's Q three. That's Cuban. So if we take the lead vocal tile 137 on minus 46.5, which is minus 1.5 times Iraq, you, uh, we get that that is equal to 90.5. And if we then take out open court l and se 168 plus 4 6.5 to give us our hope offends, we find that we get 214 0.5. Brilliant. So to show you what the senses do. When we look at these values here, we say that anything below 90.5 or anything above 214.5 is an outlier. And so if we got anything below 90.5, we haven't. But that was All you have is 103 so we're all safe on that end on. Have we got anything higher than 214.5? No, we haven't a maximum was 202 so that on any outliers in the National League set on, we could be confident about using these fences. Now let's go get the fences for this side using a similar method. So remember that this is Q 3 200 Q 149 and we say 11 49 minus 76.5. It's gonna be equal to 72.5 and simulate 200 plus 76.5. It's gonna be equal to 276.5. So looking at this, weenies finally got any values lower than 72.5 or higher than 7 276.5 Again looking at a range here, I Lois, it's 131 which is way more than 72 on a max. One was Children 45 which is below 276. So even though it looks like this 24 at 245 value should be an outlier. It actually isn't according to this rule of thumb here. And so now we have all off the information that we need in order to construct Ah, box Pop. So we all using just these five. The reason we need to calculate these fences is to check if we have any outliers. But because we didn't find any outliers in either set, we can just use the original Far are values that we had here. So if I construct a bit off, I set like this. Now let's start with the national sneak. So if we have the National League here now, the maximum number for each for either of these is 245. So I'm gonna make that the highest value Appear well. Sorry. 245. Well, the way at the top, off this graph and then start with nationally, Our highest value is that was my lowest value is 103. So if I make 100 all the way down here by the access, our lowest value was 103. So if we do this just here on our highest value was 202. Now the gap hair is 100 and 50 ish. So we want to be 50 below here, which is about 1/3 of this scale. If that makes sense, if I was to make this 250 rather than 245 so that we had a nice sorry, that was horrible. Let me race that. So if I met this 256 a nice scaling factor on here. So we've got 150 going on here. We want about 200. We're gonna go about 2/3. I think it's about there. So that's at maximum minimum now. First quarter was 137 and out. Third quarter was 168. So going down about 20. So, Rick, it might be about here 137 again. It's about here. Then we draw this box perfectly symmetrical on a median, which was 153.5. Now that's sort of 20 ish, away from the first quarter mile, about 15 ish away from Oh, yeah, it's about 15 ish away from either. So it's about Midway. Actually, this median within means quartile range. So we'll work that just that. Now, if we look at the American League our lowest value 131 now that is way higher done at the National League ever here. In fact, the first quarter I'll for here was 100 37 so only just below the box for this. So if we go just here on, then I maximum 245 is right up here near the top of the graph. So I escort our range, which was 100 49 200. If I remember rightly so, 200 was actually the maximum for this. So we can use that as a good guide for a box for here. Andi Similarly, we've got 100 49 when we compare that to anything here. So it's between the first quartile on the median on here. I find that handy to use the when you during more than one box spot to use or the box plots to try and sort of get. The scaling is right between two. So that I know that this is about 200 miss. About 200. They're about the same height. It just makes them much easier to compare. And again, our median is to assert its 181 which is 30 way from Q. Born only 20 way from key three. So we're a bit closer to this top half here. He's gonna make that slightly higher than the center. So that is what my box plot would look like if I scroll down here. I actually properly made one in software called off, which allows you to input data. Oh, I have made a despair. Excellent. Let me just re import that you're not going. But there it is. You know of me to money. Okay, so I, uh, for what, professionally made this in a software called Ah. Let me just move thes over here so that we could compare ass. So obviously this is going to look a lot better than my 101 1 here, but it should give you a good idea off how well we've done so, as you can see on Hit my intercourse arranges look much closer than these look. You can clearly see how much wider the portal ranges for the American League here compared to the National League onder. Actually, nationally, it's got a very symmetrical distribution because you've got Bert the median right here, more or less in the middle of the I Q. R. Whereas excuse me, the American League. The median. It's off at the top of this bar. No, the way the top. But it's a good sort of, you know, 2/3 of the top issue, so we can use these to talk about the distributions and compare them a little bit. So when we're looking at comparing distributions, we wanna make sure to talk about lots of different things on. We can not only use thes that we've constructed, we can use the Stephanie's diagram on the actual values that we've used such as like the I Q. R's quite good measure spread. So to start off with the i Q. R is much higher for the American League compared National League. You can see this from the values of that you want 51. You can see this visually on these box parts on the home run scored is generally lower in the National League. You know, as you can see, motor this box parties lower than the box. What for? The American League? Certainly. You know, your intercultural range is generally in the lower half of the It's called a range of the American League. So we would say T sort of summarize what I just said. There, in a bit of no waffle, is that the National League scored less home runs. A sort of the average home runs scored is lower on with less variability and all the other around. You see, the American League on average scored more home runs, but it has more variability. And so the median of the Hope home runs by National League. It's far lower in the American League that we can see here. And even though the like you are is low, the range off home run scored by the National League, A lot is higher than the American League. So if you actually look at these values here between 103 and 202 is a range of 99 but between 131 and 245 you've got a range off. 0 100 full teen. Yeah, um, which suggests the opposites. I would have said that. Sorry, I'm just comparing mind. Since with the answers I wrote down earlier, I think I'm disagreeing with past May. So you're the range from the minimum of the maximum hairs. You could say if you do you to under 45 minus 131 you're gonna get 114 whereas the difference here is only 99 So you've got not only a higher intercourse arrange for high range overall here. And so yeah, that's that's a lot of different points that I would make about comparing these two distributions and see we've constructed at these box pots. I would massively recommend using a ruler and some squared paper. You don't want wobbly grass like these when you're handing in coursework. But about from that, that is how about the question

When comparing two reactions to determine which one is faster. What we really need to know is which one has the smaller activation energy. Because the smaller activation energy means it's easier to overcome and the reaction proceeds more quickly in the activation energy when the products are similar or identical will be related to the stability ease of the starting materials. So if we compare the reactions of compound A compound be with one equivalent of HBR. In both cases were adding hydrogen and romain and losing a pie bon. So the products are going to be similar in energies to each other. The difference will be the starting energies of the to die ins and structure A. Is conjugated. So that's going to be more stable. Which means it's a lower energy. And compound B is has isolated double bonds. So it's at a higher energy but they're going to similar products. So the activation energy is going to be higher for compound A. Them for compound B. Because A. Is starting at a lower energy level. So A. Has the higher activation energy barrier. B. Has the lower activation energy barrier. So the reaction of be with H. P. R. Will happen faster, Not can be understood intuitively simply because is conjugated, so it's more stable and if it's more stable, it's less likely to react.


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