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0 / 4 ptsnconcciQuestion 3The state of a system changed fram state process Which of the following" Wue7state "B" irreversibly, and then repeated usin...

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0 / 4 ptsnconcciQuestion 3The state of a system changed fram state process Which of the following" Wue7state "B" irreversibly, and then repeated using a reversiblecnttopy chince will De <arne fot hoth prOcesses-The cnerEY releascd = ahsbrbed throurh Ihc Incchanism ok hicat will bc thc sumne fot both pracesstsBoth and b"Nong ot tne_ Juovt

0 / 4 pts nconcci Question 3 The state of a system changed fram state process Which of the following" Wue7 state "B" irreversibly, and then repeated using a reversible cnttopy chince will De <arne fot hoth prOcesses- The cnerEY releascd = ahsbrbed throurh Ihc Incchanism ok hicat will bc thc sumne fot both pracessts Both and b" Nong ot tne_ Juovt



Answers

Which of rhe following merhods is uscd to form a ncutral fcrric chloridc solution? (a) Adding onc ro rwo drops of $\mathrm{NH}_{3}$ to an $\mathrm{FcCl}_{3}$ solurion. (b) Addirion dilure I ICl to an FeCl, solurion followcd by rhe addirion of an NaOI I solurion.(c) $\Lambda$ dding an excess of $\mathrm{NH}_{3}$ to ar $\mathrm{FeCl}_{3}$ solution. (d) $\operatorname{Addin} g$ an excess of $\mathrm{NaOH} \mathrm{t} \circ$ an $\mathrm{TeCl}_{3}$ solution.

Yeah. Let's start with option A. Mhm. Irreversible process. In irreversible process. The system cannot reverse back the system. Uh huh cannot rivers dark Two. It's in issue ST along the same that the spontaneous processes are irreversible. Option B. After an irreversible process, there is a net change in the condition of surrounding. After irreversible process. There is nick change and condition. Mhm of surroundings. Okay. Notley. The compensation of liquid is irreversible process at it up as it occurs at a temperature other than the boiling point of liquid. So the example would be condensation of liquid.

We're going toe work on problem 38 from chapter 13 in this problem were asked about the entropy of three different systems and, uh, during the change that it is described with the entropy increase or decrease. So the first question is related to, uh, gasoline burning. So when gasoline is burned in an engine, does entropy increase or decrease? So, uh, in gasoline, we have hydrocarbons. And we know that when hydrocarbons combust in the presence of oxygen, they produce water and carbon accent. So just, uh, as an example, if we were to rate the combustion of ah, see four h 10 this is butane. So the hydrocarbons in, uh, gas or longer than this. But it's a mixture of type of hydrocarbon, so we can keep it simple here. So we would produce four co two or carbon oxides, and we would have to produce five waters. Sorry. 10 waters. So that would give us a 10 Oxygen's on rate and, uh, 16. So we should have 13 year so we can see that the hydrocarbon. We only have two of them, but we're producing 18 water and carbon dioxide. So the entropy increases because of the large amount of molecules being produced relative to the precursors. So in part B were given a different situation. We're we're asked to talk about the entropy relating to gold being extracted and purified from its or from iron war from the metal war. So here we're having impurity is removed from gold. So we have a mixture of gold and different minerals in this four. But when we remove but the impurities from the gold sample, that means we're decreasing confused. That means we're decreasing. The entropy in part C were given the example of ethanol dissolving in one proposal. So these two solvents admissible, so they will dissolve together. However, in the first instance, when we have peer solvents, we have the same molecules interacting with the same kind of molecules. All ethanol interacted with all ethanol. And so when we, uh, mix the solvents together, the entropy would increase because we now have two different kinds of molecules, and we're introducing so many more different interactions into ah, the the solution. So a general rule is that whenever you dissolve a solidly saw you to the solvent Ah, you're going to increase the intra me

So let's talk about the differences between a reversible and irreversible process in a reversible process. If we make very small changes From one state to another and back, we will not have affected the overall entropy of the universe. However, in an irreversible process We can go from state one wherever we start two state too. And we can wind up going backwards and we can actually get Back to ST one. We can get back to the initial conditions of the system. So infinitesimal changes well or I guess I could say could bring the system back to the original state. But remember That the universe is made up of two places. It's made up of this system and the surroundings. And so we have the second law of thermodynamics that says that the entropy of the universe is always increasing. And so when we have the change in entropy of the universe as being the change of the system and that of the surroundings, we might be able to get the system back to where it was originally by these infinite decimal changes back and forth. But what we know is that the entropy of the universe is always increasing. Which means that in an irreversible process, even if we get back to the systems original state, the surroundings will have its entropy increased. No. Now there are some places, some things uh in nature that you can see if we have a particular temperature uh and pressure condition where we will have a reversible process. For instance, if we boil water At 100°C and one atmosphere of pressure, the normal boiling point, we would wind up having a reversible process there. But let's say we want to condense water, say we want to take water from a gas and go to a liquid and do that irreversibly. So if you notice, I have not written in equilibrium Arrow, how could we do that? Under what conditions? Well, let's think about just for a moment what that equilibrium condition is. So we can by adding or removing heat, we can either by removing heat, take orders a gas, make it a liquid or add heat and make a liquid a gas With one atmosphere of pressure at 100°C.. That would make this equilibrium reversible. So under what conditions can we convert a gas to a liquid for water for instance and make it irreversible? We can't go back to a gas. Well, that's under any condition where it's going to stay a liquid and of course that's going to be below the boiling point. So any temperature below the boiling point is going to make this irreversible. So if we were talking about um going from a guest to a liquid at one atmosphere pressure, we would be talking then about less than 100°C would wind up making that irreversible

So for birth. A. What I'm doing is that I'm mixing pure Gattis to obtain a mixture of gases. The process off mixing. I will get, um, a variation off gases within a fixed container. And that increases the discounter compared to a container containing on the one type of cast. So the disorder increases. And so year entropy increases for Barbie. I'm taking sand, which is made up, Let's see from quartz or silicon dioxide on. What I'm basically doing is that I'm refining it and obtaining on the silicon here. Basically, I have one element here have more than one element other words. The order is increasing, and so disorder is decreasing, and so entropy decreases. For the third part, it's sublimation of CO two. So I'm taking a solid on, then turning it into gas. As we know, gas is generally have more disorder. That's all. Entropy increases


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