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Har Gobind Khorana at the University of Wisconsin synthesized artificial mRNAs such as poly CA (CACA $\ldots$ and poly CAA (CAACAACAA...). He found that poly CA codes for a polypeptide consisting of alternating threonine (Thr) and histidine (His) residues. There are two possible codons in poly CA: CAC and ACA. One of these must encode histidine and the other threonine- -but which is which? The answer comes from results with poly CAA, which produces three different polypeptides: poly Thr, poly Gln (glutamine), and poly Asn (asparagine) (An artificial mRNA can be read, inefficiently, beginning at any point in the chain; there is no specific initiation signal. Thus poly CAA can be read as a polymer of CAA, of $\mathrm{ACA}$, or of AAC.) Compare the results of the poly CA and poly CAA experiments, and determine which codon corresponds with threonine and which with histidine.

Okay, so we'll start with our first Lewis structure. Carbon is a central atom and it forms four bonds. We're told one chlorine is on each carbon with the other before hydrogen will be attached in this way. So there is your first lewiS structure and the second one we've got carbon and carbon and a corinne And two more hydrogen. And since carbon wants four bonds, this is going to be a double bond here. Okay, so those are your LewiS structures. This has a carbon carbon bond order of one, it's a single bond and this has a carbon carbon bond order of two, which means it's a double bond. So we're gonna try to use the bond energies to find the heats of reaction. So it's easiest to sketch out each structure here. So you can keep track of the bonds that you are breaking and making. So in this case are heat of reaction is the bond energy. Oh, all the reactant bonds minus all the product. Bones. So this is going to be there's four carbon hydrogen bonds because the carbon carbon double bond, Kloza, chlorine, chlorine single bond. And then we'll subtract over here on the right for carbon hydrogen bonds And we'll subtract two carbon chlorine bonds and a carbon carbon bond. You can see that these will cancel out and then we'll just look up our bond energies And see what we get. So 6 14 Close to 42 for the chlorine chlorine bond -2 times are carbon chlorine bond, which is 348. So that will give us negative 1 48 killer jewels for that reaction to the second reaction. Now we're going to take this is now a reactant. Again, it's worth it to take the minute to sketch out what you're doing here to make sure you don't miss anything. But this is an equilibrium with this year. This is your C two H four and your hcl. So our heat of reaction is going to be four carbon hydrogen bonds plus a carbon carbon bond of course to carbon chlorine bonds. And then we're gonna subtract for carbon hydrogen bonds. We'll subtract the carbon carbon double bond and we'll subtract and each cl bond you got the elder. So if we plug in all those numbers here again, these two are going to cancel out. So 3 48 for the carbon carbon supposed to Times 3 28 for the carbon chlorine. And then we'll subtract 6 14 for the carbon carbon double bond And we'll subtract 4:31 for the last one. So this will give us negative 389 Killer Jewels. So those are your entropy changes for those two processes estimates because we use bond energies. Okay, so we're going to talk about how the yield first of all of this is affected by temperature and by volume. Well, this is an exotic thermic reaction. So our heat is over here. So we want to think of ways where we can increase the yield of our product obviously. So we're gonna want to decrease the temperature. If we decrease the temperature, the reaction will shift to the right and we'll produce more products. Mhm. For volume, we want to look at the reaction is going to shift to whichever side. If I increase the volume more moles of gas. So this side has two moles of gas And this side has one ball of gas. So I want to do something to cause it to shift to the side with one mall because that's our product. So we're gonna want to decrease the volume. This will cause it to shift to the side with fewer moles of of gas, which in this side is to the right, so those two changes would cause you to form more of your product. Similarly with the second one, it's also eggs a thermic. We just found the heat. So we're going to for the same reason, want to decrease the temperature. You're going to increase the amount of the product which you're trying to make and with the volume we're going from one mall now, 2 2 moles of gas. So we want to find some way of shifting this to the right where there's more moles of gas. So in this case, in this case we're gonna want to increase the volume and that will shift it right and increase the amount of our product again. So we've been asked to look up the boiling points. So for the dick laurel ethane Are boiling point is 8347°C, which makes it a liquid at room temperature. And for a vinyl chloride, it's -134, which makes it a gas at liquid temperature. So if you look at that figure and try to replicate what's happening, we want to remove our vinyl chloride as it forms by liquefying it. Mm. So as it removed is removed, that second equilibrium is shifted to the right, which means we're using up its reactant, which means that the previous equilibrium, it's going to want to produce more product. So this causes both reactions to shift to the right and for more of your vinyl chloride. So you're going to want to remove that vinyl chloride as it forms by liquefying it.


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