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Question 16 (2 points) Eu (449tamWhat is the purpose of the CAC (Citric acid cycle)? Click all that apply:The CAC is used to generate biosynthetic precursors for m...

Question

Question 16 (2 points) Eu (449tamWhat is the purpose of the CAC (Citric acid cycle)? Click all that apply:The CAC is used to generate biosynthetic precursors for molecules such as amino acidsThe CAC is used to oxidize acetate into 2 CO2 molecules.The CAC is used to create FAD for energy:The CAC is used to create many molecules of ATP by substrate level phosphorylation

Question 16 (2 points) Eu (449tam What is the purpose of the CAC (Citric acid cycle)? Click all that apply: The CAC is used to generate biosynthetic precursors for molecules such as amino acids The CAC is used to oxidize acetate into 2 CO2 molecules. The CAC is used to create FAD for energy: The CAC is used to create many molecules of ATP by substrate level phosphorylation



Answers

Choose the best answer for each question.
The citric acid cycle produces ______
ATP molecule(s) per glucose molecule: a. 1 c. 4 b. 2 d. 16

Okay now here in this question it is us With a rich molecule will produce the most 80 people move Let us see for the very 1st 1 it is glucose or aesthetic assets now fact produce more http due to the long chain fatty acids practice acid that is a subtle calling then glucose is that these three actually pulling molecules 4 6 Carbon Atoms. Now static acid very acidic produces 1 28 Ep multitude read as glucose produces 38 A. D. P. molecules. Mhm 38 eighties. That's why the steri casting it is an 18 carbon molecules. That's why it produces the mood 80 piece you need compound the second one is glucose or to fire away glide policies start with glucose and ends with 252 weeks night policies. Tax with new polls and inked with try to live fire away Here beautiful is 38 Https molecules and fire it is 4 80 releases scoring 80 Next wife in two years. Yes we produce more epic it's nothing two asset falling or one problematic. Each a settle calling a settle for a enters the precursor recycle and 1280 molecules. How many 12 HTTP molecules been produced now see and all data ministerial ATP molecules and oxidation of problematic acid years Here 1280 p molecule is old as the thing. B and 106 it could be for problematic as So here problematic acid produces more Italy now Lorik exit or a problematic and said now Lorik acid is the acid with 12 carbons that is the problematic acid problematic acid east an asset the 16 carbon. That's right. Norick answer being produced 95 molecules of 80 various The problematic acid will produce 106 https. So here in this case the problematic acid will produce More molecules of 80 p. Now e it is alpha to the military Or humorous in one turn of citric acid cycle. No, I'll socket of blue terry. Alsace will stop. That week Will produce three molecules of keeping let us humanity. Mm and there? S okay. Mm. Beautiful humanity being produced one morning during of 50 ft hands here the AL pocket of new direct produces more more acute than few marriage.

So in this podcast, we're gonna be running over a few basic facts. Um, just start off with some contextual information. Our co enzymes are these substances that are able to enhance the action open enzyme. So our co enzymes tend to be quite small molecules. They cannot catalyze the reaction just by themselves, but they will help the enzyme to do so. So in our fast part, what we have is coming down A that is used for the transfer of an exile group on one substrate to another. Then we have to part B. We can take a look at and then f a D act as an oxidizing re agent and the activity of our pyro fight di hydrogen ease conflicts. So the oxidation will take place and we will have Queenan transformed to hydroquinone. Next, we have been a d plus factors of reducing the agent in the activity of our pyro VT hydrogen is complex. Next, we have 15 k h two. Catalyze is the addition of our carb oxalic acid group to glue atomic acid, which is necessary for processes in the body like blood clotting. Next we have vitamin B one co enzyme on and lie pick acid used for dick a box elation reactions. Next, we have Deka Box all Asian reactions that take place on the substrates containing additional CFL. Eight groups on the side. Chains off passive site off the molecule Thanks for your footman. K two. I'm Vitamin H Co. Enzymes are used for car box. Later reactions and car box relation. Reaction takes place in a protein involved in blood clotting I

In this problem were asked which molecule? Comparatively, it will produce the most 80 p. Permal. We can look back at sections 18.5 and 18.6 to solve this problem. First, we're comparing Glucose and Starik Asset. Since Derek Acid has more carbon groups to be cleaved than glucose does, it will end up producing a higher number of acetyl COA way any D H and F A. D H two molecules, meaning that it will produce more 80 p. Next we have glucose and to PIRA bait. We know that the complete oxidation of glucose will yield 36 80 p well to Piru. Fate will yield to acetyl coa way molecules 12. 80 p can be performed per each acetyl coa a molecule so glucose will yield 36 80 p while to pyre available. Yield. 24 80 p. Next, we have two acetyl coa way molecules versus one Paul Mitic Asset. We know that two acetyl coa a molecules will yield 24 80 p one paramedic acid will produce eight acetyl coa a seven and a. D. H and seven f A. D. H. Two molecules. In this case, we don't even have to calculate the amount of 80 p formed through Paul Medic acid because we know that it's going to be much higher than 24 80 p. Next we have Lorik Acid versus Paul Medic acid Paramedic acid has more carbon groups to be cleaved, so it will end up producing a higher number of acetyl coa way any D H and F A. D H two molecules. This means that Paul Medic Acid will produce more 80 p. Finally, we're comparing Alfa Kato glittery to fume a rate in one turn of the citric acid cycle. We know the Alfa Kita glued. A rate is used earlier in the citric acid cycle than few Marie is, so it will produce more 80 p overall.

Okay, so for this problem will be venturing just a little bit into the realm of biochemistry and maybe a little bit organic chemistry slightly. But don't be afraid, because you have everything in your arsenal that you need to do to solve this problem. So we will be working through it together, and it will make perfect sense as we go along. So we're looking at a portion of the citric acid cycle I've wrote C A c at the top here for your reference. So we know as this is an abbreviation for citric acid cycle, and this step we're looking at the process or the reaction that turns sucks innate, which I've labeled here within s to a few more eight over here on the right. So let's work through piece by piece and see how we can solve each portion of this question. So were first asked to answer, Is this a reduction or an oxidation reaction? Sorry about that. Sneeze. So, in order to identify this first is very helpful. To understand how to define oxidation and reduction and, uh, in these terms, so we know that oxidation is lost, which I am writing a little acronym for right here. And then reduction is gain loss in gain of what you may ask electrons. So oxidation is the loss of electrons. Reduction is the gain of electrons. So let's see when you go to suction it to fume rates if we're losing or gaining electrons, because that will ultimately tell us, um, which of the two it may be? So let's circle the portions that are different because if we're looking for a change in electrons, we should look for a change in the molecule because that could be a good indicator as well. So this portion here, um, this second carbon from the top going down is where we start to see change in this portion of each molecule. So I think a great way to identify would just be counting electrons if you aren't very accustomed to doing this, because numbers don't lie, at least in this instance. So each chemical bond is two electrons. It's It's indicating that, uh, for example, this bond here the hydrogen is getting one electron and carbon is getting one electron. So let's count by twos. So we see one, 234 Bonds 2468 and then the carbon carbon bond. So altogether, two times five. That should be 10 electrons double check my math if you'd like, but I'm fairly confident. That is correct. So on the right, we see 1234 bonds four times two. Right now you know it. It is H electrons. So are we losing or gaining electrons? We are definitely losing electrons any time you go from on Al Kane being, ah, single carbon bonds to an AL Keen, you are losing electrons in the form off these hydrogen. Is that our actually leaving the molecule here and here? And they will be, uh, doing something else, which we'll discuss in a second, so that would definitely be oxidation. So the a portion is oxidation. Wonderful. Now let's look at the next part. Um, is the reaction x organic or inorganic? So is it favorable or not? Remember, X organic versus an organic, uh, those terms, that's essentially what it means. So we're going to get energy released from doing this. And, um, this will be easy to think about once you realize that the hydrogen zehr leaving sucks, mate, When you go to Fume writes the you're forming a double bond and we are releasing hydrogen. So if you think about an energy that releases some sort of heat, right, he eats can normally be considered as gas. I mean, we can think about this very easily. There's lots of instances where heat is a by product and he could be released as gas. So I just think about the hydrogen being released as releasing hydrogen gas. And that would be an indicator that he's created, which is a very strong indicator that their reaction is eggs organic. So but ultimately it comes down to it's favorable. Most oxidation czar. Favorable because we are releasing electrons in the form of hydrogen. So it is X organic for option B Also right e x e r rather than ender for and organic, which would be the opposite. Okay, so now we're asked to identify what kind of all those enzyme this reaction requires. So let's look at part, see, And, um, to understand this, we need to have ah general idea about how the citric acid cycle works. We have, um, two different substrates. I guess you can refer to them as that being n a D H and F A D h. And these could be found in two different forms in this process. If you are familiar with citric acid cycle, take a minute and take a guess as to what I'm referring thio or uneducated Guess at that. Okay, so during this oxidation step, we are as I comment or I drew earlier thes hydrogen czar being released and things will be actually reducing thes substrates here. So instead of being, uh, a ah and I D initially it will be and a d plus So it will gain this hydrogen and will be reduced two and a D. H. Because we're gaining electrons actually normally think about hydrogen as being a proton, But in this instance, it's carrying the electrons. So it is. Actually, I'm going to give a negative, too. Um, it's gonna given electron. So because we're gaining electrons oil rig, this is the reduction. And this is why we commonly refer to these reactions. Is redox reactions because there's a reduction component which is shown here then also this would cause f a d. H to become f a d. H two. So this is the reduction components in the oxidation component we figured out above its succeeded to fume rates. So we need an enzyme for these are reactions. So we were just refer to this is being, ah coenzyme similar to an a D h or F e d h two. So that's one way to referring to it. Um, so a redox coenzyme for an A D or f a d h. So that's how I would refer Thio See, Would be a co enzyme for these two guys over here. Beautiful. So what else do we have to, um, discuss? So what happens to the fume rate after the reaction is completed? So that is the next step. What happens to if you right after the reaction is completed? So look at that. What happens to human right? Because we've forms of humor, it from socks, Nate, and this will continue to be a portion off the citric acid cycle, so that is very key to know. And also it will be involved as, uh um electron, except her essentially, which we have drawn here. We've shown that it accepts the electrons. Oxidation is loss, so it will gain electrons eventually and the citric acid cycle because it's in it reduced or it's an oxidant state and it will become reduced and become an except, er the C A C as the C A C continues to go on. This is your gas. It's cycle, that is, I'll just write that out. All right, so we're almost done. We have one more portion of the question Portion E which is saying what happens to the coenzyme after the reaction is completed. So we just realized that it has become reduced. As we've drawn here, we have an A D h and F A D H two, which would be formed in various parts of citric acid cycle, depending on which step you're looking at, these were reduced, right. We show that they gained electrons in the form of these hydrogen that are gained and their job is not over yet. They will move on to the E T. C, which, in case you didn't know, is the electron transport chain where electrons are being moved around. And since they're carrying, um, these electrons, they will be re oxidized, so they will go back to their original state Estrada arrow here for both of them. So it become re oxidized into an A D plus and F a D h so they will lose their electrons and give them to other things which you can look at in the electron transport chain. If you would like to be reminded of those particular steps, but they will move on to the next portion off respiration and, yeah, they'll be re oxidized by giving up their hydrogen.


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