Okay, so for this problem will be venturing just a little bit into the realm of biochemistry and maybe a little bit organic chemistry slightly. But don't be afraid, because you have everything in your arsenal that you need to do to solve this problem. So we will be working through it together, and it will make perfect sense as we go along. So we're looking at a portion of the citric acid cycle I've wrote C A c at the top here for your reference. So we know as this is an abbreviation for citric acid cycle, and this step we're looking at the process or the reaction that turns sucks innate, which I've labeled here within s to a few more eight over here on the right. So let's work through piece by piece and see how we can solve each portion of this question. So were first asked to answer, Is this a reduction or an oxidation reaction? Sorry about that. Sneeze. So, in order to identify this first is very helpful. To understand how to define oxidation and reduction and, uh, in these terms, so we know that oxidation is lost, which I am writing a little acronym for right here. And then reduction is gain loss in gain of what you may ask electrons. So oxidation is the loss of electrons. Reduction is the gain of electrons. So let's see when you go to suction it to fume rates if we're losing or gaining electrons, because that will ultimately tell us, um, which of the two it may be? So let's circle the portions that are different because if we're looking for a change in electrons, we should look for a change in the molecule because that could be a good indicator as well. So this portion here, um, this second carbon from the top going down is where we start to see change in this portion of each molecule. So I think a great way to identify would just be counting electrons if you aren't very accustomed to doing this, because numbers don't lie, at least in this instance. So each chemical bond is two electrons. It's It's indicating that, uh, for example, this bond here the hydrogen is getting one electron and carbon is getting one electron. So let's count by twos. So we see one, 234 Bonds 2468 and then the carbon carbon bond. So altogether, two times five. That should be 10 electrons double check my math if you'd like, but I'm fairly confident. That is correct. So on the right, we see 1234 bonds four times two. Right now you know it. It is H electrons. So are we losing or gaining electrons? We are definitely losing electrons any time you go from on Al Kane being, ah, single carbon bonds to an AL Keen, you are losing electrons in the form off these hydrogen. Is that our actually leaving the molecule here and here? And they will be, uh, doing something else, which we'll discuss in a second, so that would definitely be oxidation. So the a portion is oxidation. Wonderful. Now let's look at the next part. Um, is the reaction x organic or inorganic? So is it favorable or not? Remember, X organic versus an organic, uh, those terms, that's essentially what it means. So we're going to get energy released from doing this. And, um, this will be easy to think about once you realize that the hydrogen zehr leaving sucks, mate, When you go to Fume writes the you're forming a double bond and we are releasing hydrogen. So if you think about an energy that releases some sort of heat, right, he eats can normally be considered as gas. I mean, we can think about this very easily. There's lots of instances where heat is a by product and he could be released as gas. So I just think about the hydrogen being released as releasing hydrogen gas. And that would be an indicator that he's created, which is a very strong indicator that their reaction is eggs organic. So but ultimately it comes down to it's favorable. Most oxidation czar. Favorable because we are releasing electrons in the form of hydrogen. So it is X organic for option B Also right e x e r rather than ender for and organic, which would be the opposite. Okay, so now we're asked to identify what kind of all those enzyme this reaction requires. So let's look at part, see, And, um, to understand this, we need to have ah general idea about how the citric acid cycle works. We have, um, two different substrates. I guess you can refer to them as that being n a D H and F A D h. And these could be found in two different forms in this process. If you are familiar with citric acid cycle, take a minute and take a guess as to what I'm referring thio or uneducated Guess at that. Okay, so during this oxidation step, we are as I comment or I drew earlier thes hydrogen czar being released and things will be actually reducing thes substrates here. So instead of being, uh, a ah and I D initially it will be and a d plus So it will gain this hydrogen and will be reduced two and a D. H. Because we're gaining electrons actually normally think about hydrogen as being a proton, But in this instance, it's carrying the electrons. So it is. Actually, I'm going to give a negative, too. Um, it's gonna given electron. So because we're gaining electrons oil rig, this is the reduction. And this is why we commonly refer to these reactions. Is redox reactions because there's a reduction component which is shown here then also this would cause f a d. H to become f a d. H two. So this is the reduction components in the oxidation component we figured out above its succeeded to fume rates. So we need an enzyme for these are reactions. So we were just refer to this is being, ah coenzyme similar to an a D h or F e d h two. So that's one way to referring to it. Um, so a redox coenzyme for an A D or f a d h. So that's how I would refer Thio See, Would be a co enzyme for these two guys over here. Beautiful. So what else do we have to, um, discuss? So what happens to the fume rate after the reaction is completed? So that is the next step. What happens to if you right after the reaction is completed? So look at that. What happens to human right? Because we've forms of humor, it from socks, Nate, and this will continue to be a portion off the citric acid cycle, so that is very key to know. And also it will be involved as, uh um electron, except her essentially, which we have drawn here. We've shown that it accepts the electrons. Oxidation is loss, so it will gain electrons eventually and the citric acid cycle because it's in it reduced or it's an oxidant state and it will become reduced and become an except, er the C A C as the C A C continues to go on. This is your gas. It's cycle, that is, I'll just write that out. All right, so we're almost done. We have one more portion of the question Portion E which is saying what happens to the coenzyme after the reaction is completed. So we just realized that it has become reduced. As we've drawn here, we have an A D h and F A D H two, which would be formed in various parts of citric acid cycle, depending on which step you're looking at, these were reduced, right. We show that they gained electrons in the form of these hydrogen that are gained and their job is not over yet. They will move on to the E T. C, which, in case you didn't know, is the electron transport chain where electrons are being moved around. And since they're carrying, um, these electrons, they will be re oxidized, so they will go back to their original state Estrada arrow here for both of them. So it become re oxidized into an A D plus and F a D h so they will lose their electrons and give them to other things which you can look at in the electron transport chain. If you would like to be reminded of those particular steps, but they will move on to the next portion off respiration and, yeah, they'll be re oxidized by giving up their hydrogen.