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Cytokines (a) are regulatory Toll-like receptors (b) prevent the inflammatory response (c) include interferons and interleukins (d) are immunoglobulins (e) include ...

Question

Cytokines (a) are regulatory Toll-like receptors (b) prevent the inflammatory response (c) include interferons and interleukins (d) are immunoglobulins (e) include interleukins and complement proteins.

Cytokines (a) are regulatory Toll-like receptors (b) prevent the inflammatory response (c) include interferons and interleukins (d) are immunoglobulins (e) include interleukins and complement proteins.



Answers

T cells that secrete cytokines that help antibody responses are called ______. a. $\mathrm{Th} 1$ b. Th2 c. regulatory $\mathrm{T}$ cells d. thymocytes

All right, folks, we look at this question. The big one that we want to look at is that we're looking for something that had that gives chemical signals between. I can't spell that. I'm so sorry between cells. Now we got our four answers. It's breaking down A, B, C and D. A is our side of kinds now. Side of kinds are are proteins that are very, very important for signaling between cells. Now, these do not enter our cell cytoplasm they mainly just attached to the outside with. Basically, they're the message carriers right now. Anti microbial peptides is be now anti Makor Bill peptides are These are the things that directly fight. I'm gonna still call them pathogens. We could call them anti gin or sorry, You could call them microbes. What everyone want to say. It's all kind of same thing. Half the gym's. So be these air where directly fighting those those pathogens now see complement proteins. This is a cascade of responses in our body where it actually helps peptides and antibodies to fight off microbes. It just makes what they do stronger. So we're just going to say that this enhances the immune response, and our last one is D antibodies. Antibodies air they They are the proteins that are in our blood and will latch on and mark and fight off foreign bodies that are in. So they are not taking messages in between things they're actually attaching to does. Um, sorry. Attaching to those foreign foreign bodies. Now, remember what our question asked us for? It asked us for chemical signal signals between cells. That's not gonna be antibodies. Antibodies are attaching to pathogens so that they could be fought off. That's not gonna be a compliment protein, because that is something that enhances our immune system. It's not going to be an anti microbial peptide because that is directly fighting there. Those pathogens, it's gonna be a signaling. Her are signing kinds, which are what signals mean between sauce.

All right, folks. So looking at this question after asking us about about bacteria, sins and defenses, um, we are once again in biology. It's very cavalier, heavy. So we need to break down our answers so that we can figure out what those own different answers mean and how they fit with our with our question. So we have two words in our question. They're the big ones. We have bacteria, sins, bacteria sends, and we have defenses. Now, both bacteria sins and defense ins are proteins, and they're both anti microbial. Now. The big difference between them is that bacterial sins are produced by other microbes to destroy pretty much like the same type of microbe. Basically, they're Teoh basically destroy competition, whereas defenses are proteins that your body makes to fight off bacteria. Now, when you look at our answer, we have a few choices. Now, a A is luego trains now. Luca trains, um, are inflammation regulators. No, inflammation is part of our is part of our immune system. But it is. I, uh it doesn't really have to do with bacteria since the defense ends because those air directly attacking microbes, they're not inflaming the body trying to push something now side of things Or just be now a side of you is aside, King, if you, if you remember, is for, um, cell communication. Proteins that travel between cells and tell basically communicate. If something's being attacked, what they need to do, they never really enter the soul of the way. So that's not our answer. No si inflammation, eliciting mediators. This is basically saying the same thing. It's telling us, basically the job of a Luca tree. Luca Trains cause inflammation and they meet and they regulate how much So it's definitely not gonna be see, either. Now D de is where we have antimicrobial peptides. Now, if you remember that answer, I remember our definitions both back to your sins. Defenses are proteins pepped it peptides or proteins, and it says anti microbial right there. And both defenses and bacteria sins fight other other bacteria. Whether defenses are produced by our body or bacteria, sins are produced by nope. Sorry was the wrong color or bacteria sins air produced by other bacteria. I hope this helps you

Okay, so in a type one hypersensitivity, it's mediated by mass cells. So let's say this circle is a mass cell, and what happens is I g eat Anna Biden's attached to the mess l. And it causes the mass cell to release chemicals in the body in response to an allergen. So something that you may be allergic to it causes the body to release chemicals. And that's what happens in a type one hypersensitivity in a tight to hypersensitivity. It's mediated by what's caught antibodies. This is my antibody. So what happens in tight to the antibody recognizes insurgents that's on to sell. We're going to say this circle is a cell. Cool. Well, these are the insurgents on the cell. So what happens when antibodies on the cell, um, keystrokes and it dysfunctions to sell? This is also known as sidled toxicity or so, like Isis

Which would be his trigger on the meter response. Is it a sort of coins? B Antibodies See antigens or D histamines? Let's look before aunts doesn't see what they do. Sighted kinds are molecules as part of you mean response that secreted by some cells, will be intense of influencing of ourselves. But they did not trigger the immune response. Antibodies are also passed me response. They binds to the answer here and surgeon to neutralize it, since it's not as bodies. But Beyonce is vantage in. Antigens cause immune responses by definition. So it's because once remember on yourself histamines, which were never immune molecule but mediates in fact, in information information. So let's say C and skins.


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