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Question

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Answers

Insects have three thoracic (trunk) segments. While researchers
have found insect fossils with pairs of wings on all three
segments, modern insects have wings or related structures
on only the second and third segment. It turns out that
in modern insects, Hox gene products act to inhibit wing
formation on the first segment. The treehopper insect (above)
is somewhat of an exception. In addition to having wings
on its second segment, the treehoper's first segment has an
ornate helmet that resembles a set of thorns, which a recent
study has found to be a modified, fused pair of "wings." The
thorn-like structure helps to camouflage the treehopper in
tree branches, thus reducing its risk of predation. Explain how
changes in gene regulation could have led to the evolution of
such a structure.

This question is asking us to explain how changes in gene regulation could lead to such a structure like the one the insect from the photo has, Although normally the Hawks gene would inhibit the expression of genes that code for wings on the first thoracic segment, tree hoppers are the exception. So normally insects have three segments of the thorax. Usually there's wings on the last two segments and no wings here. This insect that we're talking about has wings on the second segment, and then it has a structure that scientists have, um, realize that are like a wing structure that is fused together. So one possible explanation as to why thes insect can produce a structure on the first Jurassic segment is due toa RNA interference. So, ah, RNA interference can regulate gene expression. And so it might have turned off these hawks jeans that would inhibit such a structure. So normally, um, the reason why they don't have any structure on the first Karasik segment is because of the hugs jeans they turned them off, so it's like a switch. But if there is RNA interference that could, um, inhibit the hawks jeans and therefore the wings would develop in the first Jurassic second, so mutations in these genes could have further attributed to the few the fusion of the wings. So other mutations could have, um, cost the wings to fuse and become the structure that they are.

So this is a short answer, and it's talking about insects, wings and essentially hawks genes. So insects have three different segments. Three thoracic segments and modern insects have wings or something similar to wings. On only the 2nd and 3rd segment. However, there is one insect called tree hopper, which are actually quite cool looking. I honestly recommend checking one out. Um, I have these, like little hum. It's that look kind of looks like a thorn. And what it is is a modified few spare of wings that's on the first segment. And so this question is asking explain how changes in gene regulation could have led to the evolution of such a structure. And so this, um, like, little thorny segment this camouflage. And so if you blend in, you're not gonna get eaten, right? Hopefully you wouldn't get it, and I should say And so having the thorny structure has been selected for over evolutionary time in these tree hoppers. And so that means at one point in time, there had to be a mutation in, um, something that, like regulates hawks jeans hold on. And so, as our question says, Hawkes products or what are in half, inhibiting the wing formation on first segments. So there would have been a mutation in that hawks product. Now, this mutation could be in, like the actual product itself. My guess is they're my depending mutation and repressor proteins. So as a reminder, repressor proteins or genes or proteins, I misspoke that repress certain, um, genes. So sure. Mutation. So that would have been mutation. Are there like the product that made it so it couldn't block the Hawks gene on the first segment? Or there might have been a mutation in the repressor there even could have been mhm um, upon this in quotes. But like a cancelation of a negative feedback loop, any one of these or even a combination could have led to the formation of this thorn like structure that we see. And that is the end of this question.

Here we have matching so on the lack me upon low Ghous to a dogleg Uh, something that water proofs Amniotic skin. Where am Motzkin? I should say external lee alters temperature internally alter temperatures opening for defecation, urination and produces milk. So which of the following is Anil? Home alone was to a dog leg as a reminder Home. Alok Locus is a structure that is part of the same group or lineage. And they've usually have changed a bit amongst that. If our organisms what they saw the same general structure and function. So Carrington No cloak. You know, Ecto term No bird wing. Yes. Even though some mammal and a bird this, uh, lim structure and function has been very similar from millions of years prior to the evolution of mammals and birds. And as the James same general structure has stayed throughout all that water proofs immediate skin. So room looking first like see, we got character incl Oka actor, author, Memory glina End of term. The only one of these that make senses give me carrot Tim. His two are like groups of organisms. Another Zika land in the cloak, uh, is an opening so externally alters temperature, so that's gonna be Acto therm organisms that are active thermic. They cannot internally regulate the temperature they have to behavioral e Do it. They are feel like moving the shade or move into the sun internally alternates temperature. That's me and the terms of these organisms that can, um, like sweat shiver on opening for defecation in your nation's Tuscan vehicle, Oka depend on the organism. Sometimes that's how they reproduce, and that leaves us with produces milk and mammary gland.

Everyone. Today, I will be describing some key features of skeletal bones, and it's only some of the bones that will not be describing all the key features off all the bones of the skeleton. Eso. Hopefully, these key features and description help you memorize these bones better. And I am first going to start with the sternum. Yeah, yeah, And the keeping 12 dis turnem is it's the bone off the axial skeleton to which the pectoral girdle attaches. The second bone is this Capitola, and the markings of the scapula include the green oId cavity and the A chromium. Oh, the next bone is the helium and the alien and its features include the Allah, the crest and the greater cyanotic notch. I mean, it's Ayla. I think that it's pronounced in English. It comes from the Spanish word. Uh, that means to win Christ mhm. Another feature of this foam, it's that it's a hip phone that articulates with the Exhale skeleton. The next phone is the clavicle and the clavicle. It's doubly curved, and it acts as a shoulder struts. The next phone is the ISS Iss Keum and the S. Keum is also known as to sit down bone. The next stone is to pubis, and the pubis is thean interior. Most bone of the pelvic girdle and the Last Son is a sacred and the sacraments part of the vertebral column.


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